10. Into which class of networks do the following IP addresses fall?
127.255.255.2 c) 126.96.36.199
11. A station running TCP/IP needs to transfer a file to a host. The file contains 1024 bytes. How many
bytes, including all of the TC
4.4 COST ESTIMATES:
4.4.1 Cost/Benefit Analysis
Evaluating Quantitatively Whether to Follow a Course of
You may have been intensely creative in generating
solutions to a problem, and rigorous in your selection of the best
one available. However,
Non-functional requirements are requirements that specify
criteria that can be used to judge the operation of a system, rather
than specific behaviors.
The extent to which a mission or function must
5.6 SCREEN PROTOTYPING:
Screen prototyping can be used as another useful way of
getting information from the users. When it is integrated into a UML
The flow of the screen is made consistent with the flow of the
use case and the interaction mode
The System Design Model:
This model is the detailed model of everything that is going
to be needed to write all the code for the system components. It is
the analysis model plus all the implementation detail. Preferably it
should be possible automatica
Incremental Development is based on use cases or use case
flows which define working pieces of functionality at the user level.
Within an 'Increment', the models required to develop a working
software increment are each increme
Time t = 0
b. Routes to the Internet as seen
by four routers.
Time t = 1
c. Router R3 detects
Time t = 2
d. R3 discovers r
assumes that it can get to the Internet using one of these two routers and updates its table
accordingly. It picks Router 1 as its next hop to the Internet then sends its routing table to
Router 1 and Router 2 at t = 2. At t = 3, Router 1 and Router 2 rec
has become possible only within the past decade, and it is still undergoing refine- ment. But it
has come a long way from its beginnings.
The Digital Hierarchy
The notion of laying huge digital pipes came as an afterthought to dial tone service pro
In large internetworks, hop counts can be a misleading metric, particularly when the network
includes a variety of equipment and line speeds. For example, suppose a packet has two ways of
getting somewhere. One path traverses six routers on a 100Mbps LAN,
the network may contain sensitive, private information. Any firewall can also be programmed
with a list of forbidden addresses. (This is sometimes called a blacklist.) Blacklisted
addresses often include the Web sites of groups dissemi- nating objectionab
FIGURE 11.25 a. Pulse Amplitude Modulation b. Pulse
around the middle of the band, as shown in Figure 11.25b. Thus, PCM carries information in a
manner that reflects how it is produced and interpreted.
Through subjective tests, engineers f
How Router 1 Sees the Network in Figure 11.22a Using
Link State Routing and Dijkstras Algorithm
What Is a Firewall?
Virtually everyone in government, industry, and academia uses the Internet dur- ing
North American (SONET) and European (SDH) Optical
can be multiplexed directly onto an OC-192 carrier if there is a need to do so. This ma
contains non-functional (or supplementary) requirements. Nonfunctional requirements are requirements which impose constraints
on the design or implementation (such as performance
requirements, quality standards, or design constraints).
systems change the environment and relationships between
people, so it is important to identify all the stakeholders, take into
account all their needs and ensure they understand the implications
of the new systems. Analysts can employ several techniqu
Improved accuracy of customer information: estimate:
$10,000 / year
More ability to manage sales effort: $30,000 / year
Total Benefit: $180,000/year
Payback time: $114,000 / $180,000 = 0.63 of a year = approx. 8
4.4.3 Benefits of Cost Estimation
Designers, and Content Developers who collaborate with the
Project Manager on developing a web application.
4.5.1 Developing a Project Roadmap:
Before starting a web application project we need to have
the following information:
Establish the approxima
These documents and diagrams become your property once
the project is delivered. This allows you to grow and further develop
the application in the future. We do not keep any of the information
4.6.1 Identification of list of deliverables
project status is reviewed and all prior deliverables are reexamined, giving all new team members a common reference
Tasks associated with Conduct Project Execution and Control
-Orient New Project Team Members
-Review Project Materials
Review Project Materials and Current Project Status
Before formally beginning Project Execution and Control, the
Project Team should review updated Project Status Reports and
the Project Plan. At this point in the project, the Project Plan
the project. This is an opportunity for the Project Sponsor and / or
Project Director to reinforce the importance of the project and how it
supports the business need.
2. Manage Triple Constraints
Project Sponsor and /or Project D
Manage Project Scope
During Project Planning, the Project Manager, through regular
communication with the Customer Representatives and Project
Sponsor and / or Project Director, refined the Project Scope to
clearly define the content of the deliverable
Which tasks are taking more time than estimated? Less time?
If a task is late, what is the effect on subsequent tasks?
What is the next deliverable to be produced and when is it
scheduled to be complete?
What is the amount of effort expended so far and
Quality control should be performed throughout the course of
In the Project Scope, is it clear as to what is in and out of
Is the Project Schedule defined sufficiently to enable the Project
Manager to manage task execution?
Was a Project Schedule baseline established?
Is the Project Schedule maintained on
Description of each quality issue found
Actions to follow to correct the quality issues prior to
presenting the deliverable to the approver
Names of the individuals responsible for correcting the
The date by which quality issues must be
Does the Implementation and Transition Plan describe how to
ensure that all Consumers are prepared to use the projects
product, and the Performing Organization is prepared to support
Have all Project Management deliverables been approved b