WHY CIVILIZATIONS CLASH ACCORDING TO HUNTINGTON
1. Differences among civilizations are too basic in that civilizations are differentiated from each
other by history, language, culture, tradition, and, most important, religion. These fundamental
Is there a hierarchy of rights? Are some rights more important than others?
Is human rights an international responsibility?
NGOs have been the propellant of human rights.
If NGOs push human rights, then states have to internalize these norms over time.
The central idea of feminism: Gender emancipation, tackling the idea of the socially constructed nature
Most feminists today do not subscribe to liberal feminism.
Liberal feminism is very focused on the white, Western middle-class femal
Clausewitz: War is just another form of politics
The only form of war that is not politics is hatred.
War is just a way of working through policy disagreements
Clausewitz: The military is necessarily subordinate to politics
For every war to be an extensio
Universalism or Cultural Relativism?
UDHR (Universal Declaration of Human Rights) was adopted in 1946
The idea of human rights emerged stronger after WWII
Article 1: All human beings are born free and equal
Donnelly is a believer in Radical Universalism
GATT: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
GATT eventually became the WTO
Trade-offs for free trade include security, employment in your industry
The WTO has a particular interest in agricultural subsidies
Agricultural subsidies: pay
Theory: A set of propositions and concepts that attempt to explain a phenomenon.
The ultimate goal of a theory is to predict behavior.
A theory should generate hypotheses.
They have to work across time and space.
Theories cannot be proven because there is
Reification: To make something real that is completely contingent.
Problematization: To take something accepted as reality and make it subject to change (contingent)
A state cannot exercise justice if it means the destruction of the state becau
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, INTERNATIONAL LAW, NGOS
Liberals primarily deal with international organizations
In international organization studies, they study mostly the structure of the IOs themselves and the
processes of organizing the IOs
THE INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM (THE THIRD IMAGE)
System: An assemblage of units, objects, or parts united by regular interaction.
Systems are not typically studied in politics, they are usually tied to biology, physics, chemistry,
A closed sys
Liberal Pacifism- Schumpeter
Liberal Pacifisms purpose is to negate war- self-realization (pursuing self-interests)
Critique of Liberal Pacifism is that it requires people to be homogenous rather than heterogeneous
Balance of power is important.
Balance of power comes out of the 19 th Century: Its a theory of deterrence.
Balance of power falls under realism- Its one of the 3 tenets of realism
Unipole- One power no one can stand against (AKA hegemony)
Bipolar- Two su
THE INDIVIDUAL (Liberals and Realists for warfare)
Counterfactual argument: Making an argument based on the idea that if something wouldve been
different, the ending wouldve been different. Ie: If Hitler werent the German leader, WWII would
never have hap
1. Decision-makers see what they want to see. They see things through the lens that suits them
2. New information is hard to take in. Two mistakes are usually made: Either rejecting it or being
In transitioning Democracies, you see some of the worst conflict.
Why are these countries so susceptible to violence?
THE RATIONAL MODEL OF DECISION-MAKING
Rational model works best in times of crisis
Its essentially compiling a list of possible solutions
Fortna, Mearsheimer, Hurd, Keck+Sikkink
Regional integration project
Kant and Rosseau
The European Coal and Steel Community
Maastricht Treaty: Single Economic Market in Europe. That basi
Theoretical questions that IR tries to deal with.
International relations involves a lot of theoretical questions.
History is a good place to start answering theoretical questions.
History: Look for patterns and use them to make generalization
THE STATE (Second Image)
Four Criteria for a state:
Territory with geographic boundaries
Has a government with the populations allegiance
Recognition by other states
Problems with this idea: What constitutes recognition? What
FIRST IMAGE: THE INDIVIDUAL
Realists: They dont care about them at all. No matter the individual, they are all focused on the same
self-interests and whatnot.
Liberals: Elites shape foreign policy
Constructivists: Development of new ideas
Radicals: Dont r
A region of the world banding together.
THE EU HAS BEEN EXTREMELY SUCCESSFUL IN TRADE
CAP: Common Agricultural Policy
THE EU HAS BEEN GOOD FOR THE GLOBAL ECONOMY
The EU is a good example for other nations