What is Metabolism?
The sum total of all the _chemical reactions_ that go on in living cells
The cell is the _metabolic_ processing center
The _liver_ is the most active organ in metabolism
A family of organic compounds soluble in organic solvents but not in water
1. _ (95%)
Fats are _ at room temperature
Oils are _ at room temperature
The Usefulness of Fats
Fats in the Body:
o Key structural
Alcohol and Health
What is Alcohol?
o Can interrupt cellular processes
o Rapidly crosses cell membrane
Regulated as a _
What does one drink look like?
A drink is any alcoholic beverage that delivers _. o
Midterm #2 Study Guide
How do you calculate BMI?
For which FOUR groups is BMI likely inaccurate and inappropriate? Why?
Why is body fat essential?
o What are the minimum required
Calcium and Osteoporosis
Major vs. trace minerals
o Variation in amounts needed
o Always retain chemical identity
o Cannot be _destroyed_ by heat, air, acid, or mixing
Calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sul
Iron and Trace Minerals
The Trace Minerals
o Depend on _soil and water_ composition
o Depend on food processing
o Can affect people of all ages
o May be _difficult_to recognize
o FDA regulation of supplements
The Bodys Energy Balance
Between Energy intake and Energy expenditure
A measurement for _energy_ contained in food
1 kg of water 15 16oC.
Calorie or the _kcal_ are often used interchangeably
Reducing Risk of Chronic Diseases
Nutrition and Chronic Diseases
Leading causes of death in U.S.
1. Heart disease
_ of top ten have strong relationship with diet
Ten Leading Causes of Death in the U.S.
Multiple common risk factors for
Evaluating Weight Loss Diets
Weight Loss Products
Over _ released each year
o Magic Bullet mentality
Most DONT work!
Weight Loss Products
_ million US adults on a diet
o 85% are women
_ dollar industry
o Books, pills, diets
Plants make carbohydrates through the process of _
Glucose is the energy source for the plant and creatures that eat the plant.
First link in the food chain that supports all life on earth.
Types of Carbohydrates
Nutrition and Physical Activity
Helping athletes become less vulnerable
Understanding the role of nutrition in performance, and potential effects of
_, can be fostered by basic knowledge of how energy is formed within
REVIEW OF ENERGY METAB
Why do people choose to eat meat?
Why do people choose vegetarian diets?
Religion, healthier, dont harm animals, environmental reasons
What does it mean to be a Vegetarian?
According to the Academy of Nu
Final Exam Study Guide
What is Nutrition?
What are the six nutrients and how many kilocalories per gram do they provide?
What does essential mean with respect to nutrient needs?
What do the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (A
Fats are _hydrophopic_
o Digestive enzymes are hydrophilic
Goal of fat digestion
o Dismantle _triglycerides_ fatty acids and glycerol
Lipid Digestion Mouth
o Limited supply after _infanc
An Indispensable Nutrient
Body composed ~ _60% volume by weight_ (% greater in children).
o Range varies based on % lean muscle mass: adipose tissue.
Required in the diet
o Largest component (by weight) of our diet
o _ - not enough (only 1
Key Concepts and Facts
Vitamins are _chemical_ substances that have _specific_
functions in food and are _required_ for normal growth and health
Adequate intakes protect people against _deficiency_ diseases & prevent
Reading Nutrition Labels
Regulated by the _ (FDA)
Introduced 20 years ago
Three distinct areas
Nutrition Facts Components
Overweight and Obesity
Major health problem in the U.S.
o Growing concern worldwide
Prevalence continues to increase
o Women, low socioeconomic
Epidemic is _worldwide_
o Not merely among indust
Phytochemicals and Functional Foods
Science of Nutrition
Epidemiological (_population_) studies
o _cross sectional_ studies
o Case-control studies
o Cohort studies
o Laboratory-base in vitro (_cells_) studies
Applying DRI Recommendations
Male, 65 years old
Weight = 235 lbs
Height = 510
History = smoker, high LDL cholesterol, sedentary
1. What is Bobs recommended kcaloric intake each day? 2698 kcal
a. How many kcalories did he actually eat?
Mono- and _disaccharides_
Can be naturally occurring or _added_
_Food labels_ do not distinguish between natural and added
Challenging for consumers
Fruits and _fruit juice_
Vegetables, especially sweet
Lipid and Health
Fat in Your Diet
Fat Breakdown Targets
o AMDR: _20-35% total kcal_
o SFA: _<10% total kcal_
o PUFAs: 6 12% total kcal
As omega-6 and omega-3 FA
o _Trans fat: as low as posible_
o No specific MUFA recommendati
2. Pre-Pregnancy Considerations
Nutrition can affect _fertility_
o Risks with both overweight and underweight
o Excess alcohol, caffeine, smoking too
Dads health matters too
PART 3: Assessment of Dietary Intake Adequacy
Section A: Energy (2 marks)
1. List your kcalorie intake for each day (round to the nearest decimal point) 0.5 mark
Day 1_2725 kcal_
Day 2_3779 kcal_
Day 3_2144 kcal_
2. Based on your per
17 September 2014
My Plate Evaluation
MyPlate.com is a government website that focuses on teaching consumers how to
make healthier diet choices in an attempt to create a more health conscious co
Chapter 7 - Metabolism: the sum total of all the chemical reactions that go on in living cells.
The cell is the metabolic processing center.
The liver is the most active organ in metabolim.
All the reactions by wh
Chapter 9 - Weight Control: Overweight and Underweight
BMI as an indicator of overweight
Overweight is defined as a BMI of _
Obesity is defined as a BMI of _
Prevalence of overweight is especially high among women, the poor, blac
Chapter 11 - The Fat-Soluble Vitamins: A, D, E, and K
Require _ for absorption
Travel through the _
Excesses stored in the liver and adipose (fat) tissue
Risk of toxicity
Vitamin A retinoids and carotenoids
Chapter 8 - Energy Balance and Body Composition
True or False:
1. To reduce the fat around the stomach and hips, you should incorporate sit-ups into your exercise
2. To lose body fat, you have to do low-intensity, fat bu