Chapter 22 KEY TERMS
1. Ottoman dynasty:
2. Safavid dynasty:
3. Mughal empire:
5. Mehmed II:
8. Sail al-Din: Early 14th-century Sufi mystic; began campaign to purify Islam; first
member of safavid synasty.
9. Red He
Chapter 21 Learning Objectives
21.1 How did the Russian state manage the process of territorial expansion?
In order to manage territorial expansions, they liberated themselves from the Mongols in the 14th
century thanks to the Duchy of Russia AKA Ivan the
Chapter 21 KEY TERMS
1. Ivan III (the Great): Prince of Duchy of Moscow; claimed descent from Rurik;
responsible for freeing Russia from Mongols after 1462; took title of tsar or Caesarequivalent of emperor.
2. Ivan IV (the Terrible): AKA
Ivan the Terribl
Chapter 19 KEY TERMS
1. Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile: Monarchs of largest Christian Kingdoms in
Iberia. Married Isabella and united Spain. Responsible for conquest of Granada,
initiation of exploration of the New World.
2. Hispaniola: First
Chapter 19 Learning Objectives
19.1 What were the motivations of the Spanish conquest of the New World, and how did it
change the way Europeans viewed the world?
They were in search of new natural resources and precious metals, as well as spreading
Chapter 20 KEY TERMS
1. Factories: European trading fortresses and compounds with resident merchants; utilized
throughout Portuguese trading empire to assure secure landing places and commerce.
2. El Mina: Trading factories in forest zone of Africa.
Chapter 20 Learning Objectives
20.1 What reasons impelled Europe to turn to Africa for laborers? Were racial attitudes a major
cause? They used slaves to colonize and shift balances world civilizations. They used them to
colonize areas at a more rapid pac
Chapter 18 KEY TERMS
1. Niccolo Machiavelli: Author of The Prince; emphasized realistic discussions of how to
seize and maintain power; one of most influential authors of Italian Renaissance
2. humanism: Focus on humankind as center of intellectual and ar
Chapter 18 Learning Objectives
18.1 What was the relationship between the Renaissance and the Reformation as forces for
Both followed the dark medieval ages and brought positive changes to the culture as we can see
today. They also brough