What language are they speaking?
Joe Pesci in My cousin Vinny (1992)
Chris Tucker in Rush Hour
Boyfriend troubles (Liberia) and Emmerson
1. Topic can be any variety of Black English
2. It should be a 10-academic discussion
3. Use a minimum of THREE references
Agentive nouns formed from man man, person.
Wenki-man < shop+person
= shop owner
The context of creole formation in Suriname
The early history of Suriname can be subdivided into three distinct
contact settings that differed with respect to their social and
linguistic characteristics and the processes and mechanisms of
The structure of Nigerian Pidgin
/ occurs only in varieties that have been influenced by standard
E.g. measure is [m] in the mesolect but [m] in the acrolect.
and do not exist in the language. Hence thin is
Nigerian Pidgin can be considered to be one link in a chain
of English-lexifier pidgins and creoles spoken along the
coast of West Africa and in African Diaspora communities
throughout the Atlantic
Population of Nigeria:
West Africa Pidgin English
Proto-W.A.P.E was only spoken around the trading posts
and by a small minority of Africans.
The variety used during the early stages is better
described as a jargon, predominantly used for blackwhite communicati
Origin and development of West Africa
The linguistic detective
The founding of Freetown
11th March 1792, Freetown was founded by the Sierra
Leone Company as a settlement for freed African
American slaves. The largest group, almost two thir
What are characteristics of non-native Englishes?
1. They developed through the imposition of English on populations that
predominantly speak other languages.
2. These languages leave a permanent mark on the varieties of English
Language family trees
Refers to genetic relationships that diverge over time
and across space.
Reasons for the development of regional and linguistic
differences are more complex.
There is much less variation in vast Australia than in
The spread of English
Early modern English
It was a lighter language with a preponderance of
monosyllabic words, and sounds that are on the whole
easy to pronounce.
It was flexible and had few grammatical endings
The English tongue is of s
Scots Gaelic (Scotland)
Gaulish (Western parts France and parts of Italy and
African influence on the structure of Sranan
Simple motion in English and Sranan
Kofi went into the room
PREP inside the
'Kofi went into the room
'Kofi went into the room'