(c)Copyright 1999, 2001 by George Cain. All rights reserved.
This is a textbook for an introductory course in complex analysis. It has been used for our
undergraduate complex analysis course here at Georgia Tech and at a fe
Elements in polar coordinate systems
Here's a picture to show the area element in plane polars:
As the radius r increases by a small amount r and the angle increases by a small amount , the area
element that is produced is rr.
Polar coordinates of a point P.
From polar to cartesian coordinates.
From cartesian to polar coordinates.
Polar equation of a curve.
Direction of a curve in polar coordinates
Tangent line parallel to the polar-a