The term Big Data was coined in 1972. It is not a new technology. The term data analytics has been
around as long if not longer. (Look up the US Census statistical summaries from the early 19th century for
examples.) So . if these technologies have been a
Multidimensional Range Search
Static collection of records.
No inserts, deletes, changes.
Only queries.
Each record has k key fields.
Multidimensional query.
Given k ranges [li, ui], 1 <= i <= k.
Report all records in collection such that
li <= ki
Priority Search Trees
Keys are distinct ordered pairs (xi, yi).
Min tree on y.
Search tree (almost) on x.
Two varieties.
Search tree is a balanced binary search tree such as
a red-black tree.
Red-black Priority Search Tree (RBPST)
Search tree is a
Priority Search Trees
Keys are distinct ordered pairs (xi, yi).
Basic operations.
get(x,y) return element whose key is (x,y).
delete(x,y) delete and return element whose key
is (x,y).
insert(x,y,e) insert element e, whose key is (x,y).
Rectangle ope
Interval Trees
Store intervals of the form [li,ri], li <= ri.
Insert and delete intervals.
Version 1
Answer queries of the form: which intervals
intersect/overlap a given interval [l,r].
Version 2Variant
Report just 1 overlapping interval.
Definitio
Segment Trees
Basic data structure in computational geometry.
Computational geometry.
Computations with geometric objects.
Points in 1-, 2-, 3-, d-space.
Closest pair of points.
Nearest neighbor of given point.
Lines in 1-, 2-, 3-, d-space.
Machin
Bloom Filters
Differential Files
Simple large database.
Collection/file of records residing on disk.
Single key.
Index to records.
Operations.
Retrieve.
Update.
Insert a new record.
Make changes to an existing record.
Delete a record.
Nave Mode
Suffix Trees
String any sequence of characters.
Substring of string S string composed of
characters i through j, i <= j of S.
S = cater => ate is a substring.
car is not a substring.
Empty string is a substring of S.
Subsequence
Subsequence of strin
Router/Classifier/Firewall Tables
Set of rules(F,A)
F is a filter
Source and destination addresses.
Port number and protocol.
Time of day.
A is an action
Drop packet
Forward to machine x (next hop).
Reserve 10GB/sec bandwidth.
Example Filters
Qo
Binary Tries (continued)
split(k).
Similar to split algorithm for unbalanced binary
search trees.
Construct S and B on way down the trie.
Follow with a backward cleanup pass over the
constructed S and B.
Forward Pass
Suppose you are at node x, which
Quad Trees
Region data vs. point data.
Roads and rivers in a country/state.
Which rivers flow through Florida?
Which roads cross a river?
Network firewalls.
(source prefix, destination prefix, action)
(01*, 110*, drop packet)
27
dest 24
8
source
15
BSP Trees
Binary space partitioning trees.
Used to store a collection of objects in ndimensional space.
Tree recursively divides n-dimensional
space using (n-1)-dimensional hyperplanes.
Space Partitioning
n-dimensional space
splitting hyperplane
(n-1)-
1. How can this information be used by inventors and researchers to attract
investors?
Investors seek profit in the product they have been presented. The technology evaluation helps to
predict profitability, the uniqueness of the product and consumers int
The 2005 ITU report included a section on how the Internet of Things could impact
businesses and individuals in the developing world. The report included a number of
expected impacts across a variety of infrastructure sectors.
Looking ahead two to five ad
1. Explain how you would adapt the original case study design using your selected
research method.
I would use the Pilot study research method to reflect on the original case study that
could be used when a prototype exists, testing environment present an
Read the DHS Transition to practice (TTP) technology guide (FY 2015) (posted under Week 5 >
Content).
Choose one of the emerging applications of technology that was selected for testing by DHS.
Identify the critical infrastructure sector that would best b
Using information from your readings, explain how you could conduct a patent search to find
emerging technologies which could revolutionize the practice of cybersecurity.
The U.S Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) issues patents to newly developed invent
Case study evaluation method is an important evaluation method because it extends our knowledge to
what is already presented through earlier research. However, it is essential that enough cases are
present because a small number of cases would offer no gr
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
The Internet of Things (IoT) is based upon emerging applications of technologies. A number
of security researchers have expressed concerns that this blending of emerging technologies
with the Internet will provide new opportunities for cybe
Explain how you could adapt the case study designed by Spain and Phipps (2001) to study the
impact of movement and exercise upon the use of security features built into wearable devices (
e.g. smart watches, medical monitors, etc. ). Your adaptation shoul
DQ1: Funding Sources as Drivers of Innovation
1. Who invests in technological innovation and why?
The US government has faced slow economic growth and faces huge debt. Therefore, the
government invests in the technological innovation because it helps the
R-Trees
Extension of B+-trees.
Collection of d-dimensional rectangles.
A point in d-dimensions is a trivial rectangle.
Non-rectangular Data
Non-rectangular data may be represented by
minimum bounding rectangles (MBRs).
Operations
Insert
Delete
Find
Digital Search Trees & Binary Tries
Analog of radix sort to searching.
Keys are binary bit strings.
Fixed length 0110, 0010, 1010, 1011.
Variable length 01, 00, 101, 1011.
Application IP routing, packet classification,
firewalls.
IPv4 32 bit IP addr
Splay Trees
Binary search trees.
Search, insert, delete, and split have amortized
complexity O(log n) & actual complexity O(n).
Actual and amortized complexity of join is O(1).
Priority queue and double-ended priority queue
versions outperform heaps,
B+-Trees
Same structure as B-trees.
Dictionary pairs are in leaves only. Leaves form a
doubly-linked list.
Remaining nodes have following structure:
j a0 k1 a1 k2 a2 kj aj
j = number of keys in node.
ai is a pointer to a subtree.
ki <= smallest key
Double-Ended Priority Queues
Primary operations
Insert
Remove Max
Remove Min
Note that a single-ended priority queue
supports just one of the above remove
operations.
General Methods
Dual min and max single-ended priority
queues.
Correspondence bas
Improve Run Merging
Reduce number of merge passes.
Use higher order merge.
Number of passes
= ceil(logk(number of initial runs)
where k is the merge order.
More generally, a higher-order merge
reduces the cost of the optimal merge tree.
Improve Run Me
Improve Run Generation
Overlap input,output, and internal CPU work.
Reduce the number of runs (equivalently, increase average
run length).
DISK
MEMORY
DISK
Internal Quick Sort
6 2 8 5 11 10 4 1 9 7 3
Use 6 as the pivot (median of 3).
Input first, middle