External Auditing SCS 2331-015
Assignment #2- Due Session 13- Wednesday July 6, 2016
Question 1 (9 marks)
Jeff Jacobs is a junior accountant with the Public Accounting firm of Maxwell and King
LLP. Jeff was assigned to do the audit of the Astor E
Chapter 4 The Distribution of Life on Earth
1. Amino acids are complex molecules that are the building blocks of proteins. These experiments
showed that natural chemical processes could produce the chemicals of life as well as cell-like
1. Five. 2-10 species per year, hundreds of times higher.
3. Habitat disruption, introduced species, overhunting, secondary extinctions. The last three are
biological. Most extinctions involve more than one cause.
5. On islands.
1. As of 2001, annual world grain production per person (a basic measure of the amount of food
available) stood at 299 kilograms, yet over a billion people were undernourished to some extent.
Many researchers believe that with p
1. LCA is a method used increasingly by engineers to pinpoint steps in production,
manufacturing, or other activities that can be eliminated. This can reduce waste by reducing the
number of steps and the waste generated per step
1. Global air pollution affects the entire Earth; examples are stratospheric ozone depletion and
global climate change. Regional air pollution affects a large region, such as acid rain in one or
several countries. Local air poll
1. Polluted water is water that is rendered unusable for its intended purpose.
3. Basic water purification processes found in nature are: physical processes (dilution,
sedimentation, filtration, and aeration) and chemical proces
1. In 1928 the class of chemicals known as CFCs was developed. The use, and release into the
atmosphere, of CFCs rapidly expanded, especially after World War II and peaked in the 1970s
and 1980s. In 1973-1974 the chemist Mario M
1. Solid wastes are solid substances along with the semisolids, liquids and gases produced from
households, businesses, mining, agriculture, commercial, and industrial activities. The products of
these activities are often in so
reclamation in coastal areas
RECLAMATION IN COASTAL AREAS
1.0 INTRODUCTION. 3
1.1 Why Have Coastal Reclamation Guidelines?. 3
1.2 Planning Requirements. 4
1.2.1 Aboriginal land claims and nati
Chapter 1: Environmental Science and Critical Thinking
1.1 Encouraging Signs/Continuing Challenges
Although there are some signs of improvement, the vast majority of the environmental
trends show signs of movement away from sustainability.
There are many
1. Control group - In scientific experimentation, a group that is untreated and
compared with a treated, or experimental group.
2. Critical thinking - The most ordered type of reasoning we`re capable of. Helps us
to discern between beliefs (what
DREDGING AND MARINE WORKS
TA B L E O F C O N T E N T S
2 Dredging and Marine Works
Capital Dredging and Port Extension Works
1. Economics is concerned with resource scarcity and pollution. Economics takes a short-term
view, puts priority on social needs, and uses incentives to solve problems. In contrast,
environmental science takes a long-term view,
Environmental Science: An Overview
1. Two of the major goals of the book are: 1) To help you, the reader, to sort through the huge
amount of environmental information available and focus on important issues through an
Human Population Growth
1. There were perhaps only 125,000 human ancestors on Earth a million years ago. The
population increased very, very slowly until it reached about 5-10 million about 10,000 years ago.
With the development
The Biosphere: Populations, Communities, Ecosystems, and Biogeochemical
1. Lithosphere (rocks/Earths crust; humans have affected through mining, acid rain eroding
limestone), hydrosphere (water on Earth; pollution of water
The Dynamic Earth and Natural Hazards
1. Earths closest neighbors, Venus and Mars, have atmospheres that are 95% to 97% carbon
dioxide, whereas that of Earth is 78.1% nitrogen and 20.9% oxygen. This allows water to exist in
People and Natural Resources
1. By being dispersed, such as when concentrated ore deposited are mined and converted into
3. Conservation seeks to minimize the use of a natural resource. It does this through effic
1. Modern society is highly dependent on a continuous flow of energy for food, industry, heat,
communications, transportation, and so forth. Governments are typically concerned with, among
other things, making sure that their pop
1. The alternative energy sources are alternatives to the big five energy sources (coal, oil,
natural gas, hydroelectric power, and nuclear power). Common alternative energy sources include
solar power, wind power, geothermal pow
1. Among the important properties of water are its density (it is the only common liquid that
expands when it freezes), its boiling point which is above normal surface temperatures found on
Earth, its relatively high specific hea
1. Mineral resources refer not only to minerals in a strict sense, but also to material substances
that are composed of minerals or extracted from minerals. As sometimes used, the term mineral
resource includes the fossil fuels.
1. Preservationists argue that the land should be used for recreation and wilderness while
conservationists wish to see more of the land utilized for logging, mining, grazing and other
commercial activities. Preservationists arg
Does Reclamation Pay? Assessing the Socio-Economic Effects of Reclamation plaatsen 25
tekst nog Projects
DOES RECLAMATION PAY?
ASSESSING THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC EFFECTS
OF RECLAMATION PROJECTS
A BST RAC T
Whilst land reclamation receives increasing
1. From the first European colonization of what would become the United States until roughly the
1870s the mindset of exploiting the land and its natural resources, and then moving on, dominated
American environmental thinking.
Review Questions Solutions
Chapter 1, An Introduction to Auditing
A1 What is an audit? A financial statement audit? An audit of internal control over
financial reporting (ICFR)? An integrated audit?
An audit is a process conducted to look for corre