272. For the most rapid acquisition of a CR, the NS should be presented
A) shortly after the CR.
B) shortly after the US.
C) shortly before the US.
D) at the same time as the US.
273. Male Japanese quail became sexually aroused by a red light that had pre
341. Gay men were more accurate in guessing the angle of a geometric figure if it had been
in the same location where a nude _ briefly appeared a moment earlier. Straight
women were more accurate if the geometric figure had been in the same location where
230. The infant Albert developed a fear of rats after a white rat was associated with a loud
noise. In this example, fear of the white rat was the
231. If children get attention from their parents for doing cartwheels, they wil
255. During the months when there is a large amount of pollen in the air, your hay fever
severely affects your sense of smell. At the same time, your food all seems to taste the
same. This illustrates the importance of
A) sensory interaction.
87. Mason, a stockbroker, runs two miles every day after work because it reduces his level
of stress. Mason's running habit is maintained by a _ reinforcer.
88. Primary reinforcers could best be described
47. The occurrence of spontaneous recovery suggests that during extinction
A) the CS is eliminated.
B) the CR is eliminated.
C) the CS is suppressed.
D) the CR is suppressed.
48. In classical conditioning, generalization refers to the tendency for the con
556. An integrated understanding of perception in terms of our sensory capacities, cultural
contexts, and Gestalt principles is most clearly provided by
A) gate-control theory.
B) a biopsychosocial approach.
C) frequency theory.
513. Our experience of pain may be intensified when we perceive that others are
experiencing pain. This best illustrates the importance of
A) phantom limb sensations.
B) the vestibular sense.
C) top-down processing.
514. Mr. Kim's experie
67. A type of learning in which behavior is diminished if followed by a punisher is called
A) delayed conditioning.
B) classical conditioning.
C) secondary conditioning.
D) operant conditioning.
68. Behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more
169. Using rewards to bribe people to engage in an activity they already enjoy is most likely
B) latent learning.
C) cognitive processes.
D) intrinsic motivation.
170. Because Yuri was curious about human behavior, he enrolled in a
108. A fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement is one in which a response is reinforced only
A) unpredictable time period has elapsed.
B) specified time period has elapsed.
C) specified number of responses has been made.
D) unpredictable numbe
189. Psychologists are currently debating whether our physical capacity for mentally
simulating the observed behavior of others is due to specialized
A) intrinsic motives.
B) cognitive maps.
C) extrinsic motives.
D) mirror neurons.
190. The brain's capaci
129. B. F. Skinner's critics have claimed that he neglected the importance of the individual's
A) personal freedom.
B) early childhood experiences.
C) pleasure-seeking tendencies.
D) cultural background.
130. B. F. Skinner believed that teaching machines
149. Men have been found to be _ generous in tipping waitresses wearing red than
any other color. Women have been found _ likely to select a red rather than a
green shirt when expecting to converse with an attractive rather than an unattractive
210. Pavlov noticed that dogs began salivating at the mere sight of the person who regularly
brought food to them. For the dogs, the sight of this person was a(n)
A) spontaneous recovery.
B) unconditional stimulus.
C) secondary conditioner.
292. Little Albert developed a fear of rats after a white rat was paired with a loud noise. In
this case, the loud noise was the
A) unconditioned stimulus.
B) conditioned stimulus.
C) secondary conditioner.
D) neutral stimulus.
293. Antonio's football coa
250. An action that influences the environment and is maintained by its consequences is
A) an unconditioned response.
B) an operant behavior.
C) a conditioned response.
D) a respondent behavior.
251. Which of the following is most clearly an operan
534. Olfactory receptor cells are essential for our sense of
535. Olfaction refers to
A) transforming sounds into neural impulses.
B) the sense of body position and movement.
C) the principle that one sense
405. Feature detectors in the visual cortex pass visual information received from ganglion
cells to other cortical areas where complex patterns are processed by
A) bipolar cells.
B) supercell clusters.
C) the optic nerve.
D) opponent-process cells.
105. People who demonstrate blindsight have most likely suffered damage to their
D) visual cortex.
106. Early in the twentieth century, a group of German psychologists noticed that people tend
to organize a cluster of sensati
149. As the retinal image of a horse galloping toward you becomes larger, it is unlikely that
the horse will appear to grow larger. This best illustrates the importance of
A) relative luminance.
B) size constancy.
D) relative motion.
191. Mr. Wilkes has difficulty hearing sounds in the range of 20 to 40 decibels, but he has no
difficulty hearing sounds above that range. He would most likely profit from today's
digital hearing aids because they can deliver sound that is
61. Humans experience the longest visible electromagnetic waves as the color _
and the shortest visible waves as _.
A) blue-violet; red
B) red; green
C) red; blue-violet
D) black; white
62. The perceived brightness of visible light waves is determined by
128. John has more difficulty hitting baseballs that are pitched to him than his classmates do
because he was born blind in his right eye. His difficulty can best be attributed to his
lack of the depth cue known as
169. Our sense of hearing is known as
A) the vestibular sense.
170. The process of transforming air pressure waves into neural messages that the brain
interprets as meaningful sound is known as
A) sensory interact
Personality Disorders Outline and Vocab
Personality Disorders- pattern of behavior that is inflexible and long lasting-not changing
and stable for a long duration of time that causes distress or impairment in functioning
or everyday life
o Must effect: co
Substance Use Disorders Vocab and Outline
Substance Use- the ingestion of psychoactive drugs or substances in moderate amounts
which do not interfere with functioning
Intoxication- reversible sub specific syndrome due to intake of a sub which interferes