341. Gay men were more accurate in guessing the angle of a geometric figure if it had been
in the same location where a nude _ briefly appeared a moment earlier. Straight
women were more accurate if the geometric figure had been in the same location where
272. For the most rapid acquisition of a CR, the NS should be presented
A) shortly after the CR.
B) shortly after the US.
C) shortly before the US.
D) at the same time as the US.
273. Male Japanese quail became sexually aroused by a red light that had pre
230. The infant Albert developed a fear of rats after a white rat was associated with a loud
noise. In this example, fear of the white rat was the
231. If children get attention from their parents for doing cartwheels, they wil
255. During the months when there is a large amount of pollen in the air, your hay fever
severely affects your sense of smell. At the same time, your food all seems to taste the
same. This illustrates the importance of
A) sensory interaction.
105. People who demonstrate blindsight have most likely suffered damage to their
D) visual cortex.
106. Early in the twentieth century, a group of German psychologists noticed that people tend
to organize a cluster of sensati
513. Our experience of pain may be intensified when we perceive that others are
experiencing pain. This best illustrates the importance of
A) phantom limb sensations.
B) the vestibular sense.
C) top-down processing.
514. Mr. Kim's experie
189. Psychologists are currently debating whether our physical capacity for mentally
simulating the observed behavior of others is due to specialized
A) intrinsic motives.
B) cognitive maps.
C) extrinsic motives.
D) mirror neurons.
190. The brain's capaci
One of the key assumptions of the cognitive approach is information processing, and part of this assumption
is that processing of information is linear. One example of a model which is based on this idea is the multistore model of memory. The mu
De Groot (2006) looked at expert chess players, who were no better at recalling where chess pieces had been
randomly placed on the chess board than non-players. However, when the pieces were placed in their correct
positions, the chess players
Prisoners were told that one of them would be promoted on day 3 to become a guard. This created a
condition of high group permeability and high fairness. However, on day 3 after the promotion, prisoners
were told there would be no more promotion
Social identity theory is one of a number of theories that suggest prejudice can be explained by our tendency
to see ourselves as part of a group. We therefore view others as either part or not part of the same group as
us. Thus people are judge
169. Our sense of hearing is known as
A) the vestibular sense.
170. The process of transforming air pressure waves into neural messages that the brain
interprets as meaningful sound is known as
A) sensory interact
128. John has more difficulty hitting baseballs that are pitched to him than his classmates do
because he was born blind in his right eye. His difficulty can best be attributed to his
lack of the depth cue known as
61. Humans experience the longest visible electromagnetic waves as the color _
and the shortest visible waves as _.
A) blue-violet; red
B) red; green
C) red; blue-violet
D) black; white
62. The perceived brightness of visible light waves is determined by
191. Mr. Wilkes has difficulty hearing sounds in the range of 20 to 40 decibels, but he has no
difficulty hearing sounds above that range. He would most likely profit from today's
digital hearing aids because they can deliver sound that is
149. As the retinal image of a horse galloping toward you becomes larger, it is unlikely that
the horse will appear to grow larger. This best illustrates the importance of
A) relative luminance.
B) size constancy.
D) relative motion.
84. When we are exposed to the narrow band of wavelengths visible to the human eye, we
see a red object as red because it rejects waves of
A) blue-violet light.
B) red light.
C) green light.
D) yellow light.
85. A genetically sex-linked characteristic acc
212. The classic gate-control theory suggests that pain is experienced when small nerve
fibers activate and open a neural gate in the
A) basilar membrane.
B) semicircular canals.
C) olfactory bulb.
D) spinal cord.
213. According to the gate-control theory
In 1973, Zimbardo carried out the famous Stanford Prison experiment where one group of people acted as
guards and others as prisoners, all of which were participants. The study looked at the psychological effects
of becoming a prisoner or a pris
Stage 1: in-group formation
The two groups were kept apart for one week to help the formation of group norms and relations. They had
to work as a group to achieve common goals that required cooperation. Data was gathered by observation,
As in the first experiment, there were the same three conditions when making the choices. There were
matrices as before, and again a choice was made of one pair of rewards and punishments. The
experimenters could see if the boy had chosen the h
The situation for the main study involved 12 wards in public hospitals and 10 wards in private hospitals.
Questionnaires were distributed to graduate nurses at a separate hospital in order for usage as a matched
control. The questions in the que
In Milgrams book, Obedience to Authority: An Experimental View (1974), he outlines 19 different
variations of the original study of obedience, some of which were previously unreported. Each of the
variations had one thing in common; they all led
These were the three main conclusions reached by Meeus and Raaijmakers which tried to explain why they
achieved higher levels of obedience than Milgram did with his study:
1 physical violence has more of an immediate impact than psychological ha
Tajfel carried out a number of studies to develop and test social identity theory. Tajfel et al. wanted to test the
idea that prejudice and discrimination can occur
between groups even if there is no history between them, and no competition. Hav
The researchers drew the following conclusions:
1 None of those asked thought that nearly all the nurses would obey in the experiment. However, the
obedience showed the strength of the doctor-nurse relationship, and how a patient can suffer as a
The average rate of conformity in Aschs original experiment was 32% meaning that this amount of people
actually went with what they knew was the wrong answer, because the seven confederates of the
experimenter were saying it was one of the wrong
1 The participants were put into situations where they used different depths of processing:
- shallow processing involved asking questions about the words themselves (structural processing)
- intermediate processing involved questions about rhym
When the two groups first met, there was a lot of name calling. There is evidence collected, including what
the boys said, who they were friends with and practical issues (such as the burning of a flag). It was found
that there were clearly nega
This theory of forgetting applies to long-term memory, not the short-term store. It states that
forgetting occurs when the right cues are not available for memory retrieval. Tulving put forward
this theory in 1975, stating that memory is depende
Many researchers became interested in exactly what produced deep processing:
1 elaboration: Craik and Tulving (1975) found complex semantic processing produced better recall
e.g. The great bird swooped down and carried off the struggling _ produ
1. There were three people involved: a university researcher, a job applicant (who was an actor, similar to
the role of the learner in the Milgram experiment), and a participant, who would issue the abuse
2 The applicant was following a script,
Informed Consent In the study, the participants were not given the full details on the true nature of the
experiment, so it initially sounds as though the experimenters did not gain correct informed consent, but you
have to consider that had the
In the agentic state, people do not feel responsible for their actions. They feel that they have no power so
they might as well act against their own moral code, as happened in Milgrams basic study. In the variation in
which the victim was neare
Issue Of Junagadh: Junagadh was a small state on the coast, 300 miles south of Karachi with a population of
700,000. The population was mostly non-Muslims, but its prince was Muslim. After the independence the
request for accession with Pakista