Fundamentals of Distribution Separations (II)
(01/12/15)
1. Principles of distribution equilibria
dG = S * dT + V* dP +
int
(i +
ext
i )dni (open systems under external
field)
0
i  i ext
K = exp
RT
0
0
i = Hi TSi
0
distribution coefficient
AB
2. Int
Charles Cao
(cao@chem.ufl.edu), 226 Leigh hall.
20 nm
Growth
Properties
Assembly
Bioanalytical
Applications
CHM 6154 (Spring, 2015)
Chemical Separations
Instructor: Charles Cao (cao@chem.ufl.edu), 226 Leigh Hall.
Lectures: M, W, F, 6th Period (12:50 pm t
Gas Chromatography
1. Introduction
2. Stationary phases
3. Retention in GasLiquid Chromatography
4. Capillary gaschromatography
5. Sample preparation and injection
6. Detectors
(Chapter 2 and 3 in The essence of chromatography)
Introduction
A. General I
Separation Methods Based on Distributions in
Discrete Stages (01/21/15)
1. Chemical Separations: The Big Picture
Classification and comparison of methods
2. Fundamentals of Distribution Separations
3. Separation Methods Based on Distributions in Discrete
Separation Methods Based on Distributions in
Discrete Stages (02/02/15)
1. Chemical Separations: The Big Picture
Classification and comparison of methods
2. Fundamentals of Distribution Separations
3. Separation Methods Based on Distributions in Discrete
Separation Methods Based on Distributions in
Discrete Stages (02/04/15)
1. Chemical Separations: The Big Picture
Classification and comparison of methods
2. Fundamentals of Distribution Separations
3. Separation Methods Based on Distributions in Discrete
Separation Methods Based on Distributions in
Discrete Stages (01/26/15)
1. Chemical Separations: The Big Picture
Classification and comparison of methods
2. Fundamentals of Distribution Separations
3. Separation Methods Based on Distributions in Discrete
Basics of Chromatography
A. Chromatography vs. Countercurrent distribution
B. Type of Chromatography
C. Chromatography Parameters:tR, tM, VR, VM, tR, VR, Wb, Wh.
D. Solute Retention: k, k = tR/tM
tR = k tM tR = (k+1) tM
E. Efficiency of Chromatography and
Separation Methods Based on Distributions in
Discrete Stages (01/30/15)
1. Chemical Separations: The Big Picture
Classification and comparison of methods
2. Fundamentals of Distribution Separations
3. Separation Methods Based on Distributions in Discrete
Separative Transport
(Chapter 301/28/2015)
1. Transport is drive by equilibrium
2. Mechanical and molecular transport:
dp
Mechanical driving force =
, where p stands for potential energy
dx
d
Molecular driving force = , where stands for chemical potentia
CHM 6154 (Spring, 2015)
Chemical Separations
Instructor: Charles Cao (cao@chem.ufl.edu), 226 Leigh Hall
Lectures:
M, W, F, 6th Period (12:50 pm to 1:40 pm), 238 Weil Hall
Office hours: W, F,  7th Period (1:55 pm to 2:45 pm), or by appointment
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Diffusion and Fluid Flow
What determines the diffusion coefficient?
What determines fluid flow?
1. Diffusion: Diffusion refers to the transport of substance against a
concentration gradient. S>0
Mass transfer: movement of mass from one place to another
Di
Chromatography BandBroadening
(rate theory)
A. Introduction
1. Bandbroadening is a general term used to describe
the overall dispersion or widening of a sample peak as
it passes through a separation system.
2. Bandbroadening in Chromatography is a resu
Fundamentals of Distribution Separations (III)
(01/16/15)
0
i  i ext
K = exp
RT
distribution coefficient
0

solubility
Ci= exp
RT
0
0
0
i = Hi TSi
0
0
AB
q
0
Hi = Hi,  Hi,
0
H = EL +EI + ED + EAB
A + B
Quantitative Approach for the Strength
of Mole
Fundamentals of Distribution Separations (I)
(01/09/15)
1. Introduction to Chemical Separation
2. Principles of distribution equilibria
 Driving force for separative displacement
3. Intermolecular interactions
 Major factors controlling equilibrium betw
Fluid Flow in Packed Beds:
1. Flow in a packed bed involves a complex pattern of solvent
traveling in and around spaces in the support materials, through
channels or pores of various sizes and shapes.
2. The basic structure of a packed bed is made up of t