Heating with Humidification Problems with the low relative humidity resulting from simple
heating can be eliminated by humidifying the heated air. This is accomplished by passing the air
first through a heating section and then through a humid
Develop the equilibrium criterion for reacting systems based on the second law of
Develop a general criterion for chemical equilibrium applicable to any reacting system based
on minimizing the Gibbs function for the system.
This equation is only valid for ideal-gas mixtures as it is derived by assuming ideal-gas behavior
for the gas mixture and each of its components.
The quantity yiPm is called the partial pressure (identical to the component pressure for ideal
Absorption refrigeration systems (ARS) involve the absorption of a refrigerant by a transport
medium. The most idelseds stem is the ammonia aters stem here
The most widely used system is the ammoniawater system, where ammonia (NH3) serves as
REFRIGERATORS ANDHEATPUMPS AND HEAT PUMPS
The transfer of heat from a low-temperature region to a high-temperature one requires special
devices called refrigerators. Refrigerators and heat pumps are essentially the same devices; they
Fuel: Any material that can be burned to release thermal energy.
FUELS AND COMBUSTION Most familiar fuels consist primarily of hydrogen and carbon.
They are called hydrocarbon fuels and are denoted by the general formula CnHm. Hydrocarbon
THE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART
Schematic for a psychrometric chart.
For saturated air, the dry-bulb, wet-bulb, and dew-point temperatures are identical.
Psychrometric charts: Present moist air properties in a convenient form. They are used
ENTHALPY OF FORMATION AND ENTHALPY OFCOMBUSTION OF COMBUSTION
Disregarding any changes in kinetic and potential energies, the energy change of a system during
a chemical reaction is due to a change in state and a change in chemicall compositio
The most common energy source for heat pumps is atmospheric air (air-to- air systems). Watersource systems usually use well water and ground-source (geothermal) heat pumps use earth as
(g)pp the energy source. They typically have higher COPs b
SOME REMARKS ABOUT THE KP OF IDEAL-GAS MIXTURES
1. The KP of a reaction depends on temperature only. It is independent of the pressure of the
equilibrium mixture and is not affected by the presence of inert gases. This is because KP