1. The two foundations of science are:
A. tradition and observation.
B. observation and logic.
C. logic and theory.
D. theory and observation.
E. logic and generalization.
A. deals with what should be and not with what is.
Ethics of Human Inquiry
Some Dialectics of Social Research
Idiographic and Nomothetic Explanation
Idiographic An approach to explanation in which we seek to exhaust the
idiosyncratic causes of a particular condition of event.
Nomothetic An approach to ex
Methodology in Social Psychology
How to carry out scientific research given our understanding of the nature of knowledge.
Philosophy of Science clarifies why experimental, scientific psychology adopts the practices
that it does, but also that there are ot
Comte, Ayer and logical positivism
Positivism unity of science project
Vienna Circle 1920s - logical positivism
emphasis on theories & logical deduction of hypotheses
Statements had to be verifiable to be meaningful.
Commitment to empiricism, checking
Concept: an image or idea, not a simple object.
Conceptualization: the process of specifying what we mean by a term. In deductive research,
it helps to translate portions of an abstract theory into specific variables that can be used in
Identifying causes is the goal of most social science research.
Casual explanation: explanation for some characteristic, attitude, or behavior or groups,
individuals, or other entities (families, cities, etc) or for events.
Causal effect: the fi
Survey research: a collection of information from a sample of individuals through their
responses to questions. (ie, General Social Survey)
Omnibus survey: covers a range of topics of interest to different social scientists, in contrast to
Quiz 3 Study Guide
Sampling techniques tell us how to select cases that lead to valid generalizations about a
population. It is unnecessary when the elements that would be sampled are identical.
Population: the entire set of individuals or other
Quiz 4 Notes
Secondary Data Analysis
Secondary data analysis is the method of using preexisting data in a different way or to answer
a different research question than intended by those who collected the data, ie social science
surveys, reanalysis by a re