Statistic = numerical value obtained by analyzing numerical data about a
representative population sample
Statistics = field of study involving the analysis of numerical data about
representative population samples
Psychology and Health
A. What is the relationship between our mental and physical health? What does it
mean for psychology?
Health psychology = the study of the interaction between
psychological processes and physical conditions
We can reduce
Therapy = uses psych principles to treat mental disorders and improves lives of
History of Therapy
A. How were people who behaved abnormally treated before the development of
Abnormal behavior caused by demons, tre
What Behavior is Abnormal?
How do we distinguish abnormal from normal behavior?
A. Psychological Disorder:
Showing a clinically significant behavior or psychological
syndrome thats associated with present distress/disability or
with an increased ris
Personality = enduring dispositional characteristics that together explain a
Culture influences personality (ex. individualistic, collectivistic)
Criteria for evaluating approaches to psychology:
A. Importance to and influ
A. How does the presence of other people affect our beliefs and behavior?
Group = a collection of people who interact with each other to
accomplish work, promote interpersonal relationships, or both
a. Members have a roles (certain responsibi
The Nature of Social Psychology
A. What is social psychology?
Social psychologists study cognition (thinking), emotion, and
They study how people affect behavior
They use a process-oriented (functionalist) approach, study why
Motive = impulse, desire, or need that leads to an action
Motivation = processes that give behavior its energy and direction
Early Theories of Motivation
A. How did early theorists view motivation?
a. Instincts are inher
Social Development = the process by which we learn to understand ourselves and
to interact successfully with other people
A. How and why do we develop emotions?
Emotion = subjective, conscious experience accompanied by
Developmental psychology = study of the differences and similarities among
people of different ages and of the qualitative and quantitative psychological changes
that occur across the life span
Cognitive development = study of how mental skills acc
Definitions of Intelligence
A. How have experts and others defined intelligence?
Intelligence comprises the ability to learn from experience and to
adapt to the surrounding environment
Metacognition = understanding/control of your own thinking
The Nature of Language
A. What characteristics define language?
Language = an organized way to combine words in order to
Language is communicative.
Language is arbitrary.
a. Arbitrary symbolic reference = sounds that are m
How To Study Memory
A. How can we assess peoples memories?
Memory = the process by which past experience and learning can
be used in the present
a. Use our memories to understand the present
b. Researchers study memory by having participants
Learning = any relatively permanent change in the behavior, thoughts, and
feelings of an organism that results from prior experience
Without learning, you cannot adapt to changes
A. What is classical conditioning and how
Consciousness = ones awareness of internal & external stimuli & of oneself
A. How do we manage to pay attention to some things in the environment & to
tune out others?
1. Attention = link between the enormous amount of info that as
Sensation = a msg our brains receive from a sensory receptor thats been
Sense = physical system that receives a certain kind of physical stimulation and
translates it into an electrochemical msg the brain can understand
Nervous system = physiological network of intercommunicating cells that forms
the basis of our ability to perceive, adapt to, and interact with the world
II. Brain = the supreme organ of the nervous system, which most directly controls our
Characteristics of Scientific Findings
What are the main characteristics of scientific findings?
A. Scientific Findings are Verifiable
Verifiable = can be confirmed
Replicable = can use the original methods and produce the same
The generalization that behavior is adaptive means that animals and humans have
biological predispositions to learn certain behaviors because they have adaptive functions. These
behaviors arent usually easily explained by classical, operant, or observatio
A. Cognitive dissonance is when a person perceives a mismatch between their
thoughts/attitudes and their behavior. Conformity is modifying behavior to fit in with the
norms of a social group, or the tendency to give up individuality in order to become lik
A. Anxiety is caused behaviorally when a response of anxiety is learned through classical
conditioning (learning by association), operant conditioning (learning by receiving
rewards and punishments), and observational learning (watching and imitating a ro
Extrinsic motivation is when forces outside the individual encourage the individual to
engage in a particular behavior. Extrinsic motivators reward people for doing certain things or
punish people for not doing certain things. An example of an extrinsic m
A. The psychodynamic/psychoanalytic cause of depression emphasizes feelings of
loss. Someone may become angry at losing something, and then turn that anger
inward and become angry at themselves for letting that loss occur. For example,
Cindys mom dies. Ci