Combustion reactions always involve molecular oxygen O2.
Anytime anything burns, it is a combustion reaction. Combustion reactions are
almost always exothermic. Ex: wood burns, it must do so in the presence of O2 and
a lot of heat is
The replacement of one or more hydrogen atoms in a saturated hydrocarbon
with another atom or group.
Ex: C2H6 + Cl2 C2H5Cl + HCl
Adding one or more atoms at a double or triple bond.
C2H4 + X2 C2H
History of the Atom
- were the early scientists
- stated that matter was composed of things such as earth, water, air, and fire
- Democritus (460-370 B.C.) was the 1st person to propose the idea that matter
was not infinitely divisible. He b
Electron Configurations Review
Write out the standard configuration for each of the following elements.
5. Br1Write the orbital notation for the following:
Flame Test Lab
The normal electron configuration of atoms or ions of an element is known as the
ground state. In this most stable energy state, all electrons are in the lowest energy levels
available. When atoms or ions in the ground state are
1. Draw a circle to represent the nucleus.
2. Write the number of protons inside the
3. Determine the number of energy levels by
the period of the element.
4. Draw the energy levels as circles around the
ATOMIC STRUCTURE WORKSHEET
Complete the table. There is enough information given for each element to determine all missing
Atomic Structure Practice
Name the three particles of the atom and their respective charges are:
The atomic number tells you the number of
in one atom of
an element. It also tells you the number of
in a neutral atom of that
Types of Mixtures Lab
There are three general types of mixtures that are separated by the size of the particles
present. A solution is a mixture in which the solute is broken down into its smallest constituent
parts. In other words, the solute is entirely
Properties of Matter Review
1. Classify each of the following properties as extensive or intensive.
d. freezing point
2. State whether each of the following is a physical or chemical change
a. melting butter
depends on the
amount of matter
depends on the
identity of substan
Physical and Chemical Changes
1) When we make observations in chemistry class, we describe certain physical properties of
objects or chemicals. List 5 different kinds of physical properties.
2) What is a physical change?
3) What is a chemical change? What
Physical & Chemical Changes Lab
When a physical change occurs, only the form of the substance changes. Chemical changes,
however, result in the formation of new substances with different properties. Some general
signs of a chemical change incl
Classifying Matter Lab
Complete the following table while viewing the various forms of matter in lab.
List at least 2 physical properties for each sample. Classify the matter as an
element, compound, solution, or heterogeneous mixture. Write these
Properties of Matter Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives / Targets
I can define following terms: Substance,
Element, Compound, Periods, Groups, Mixture,
Law of Definite Proportions, Law of Multiple
Proportions, Tyndall Effect
I can cl
Paper Chromatography Separation of Ink Pigments
Many inks are actually mixtures made up of several basic pigments. Each pigment may have a different
color, a different structure, and different physical and chemical properties. The pigments in
Gases Notes Problems
A mixture of O2, CO2, and N2 has a total pressure of 0.97atm. What is the partial
pressure of O2, if the partial pressure of CO2 is 0.70atm and the part. press. of N2
A sample of He gas in a balloon
Gases - Honors
Units of Pressure
1 atm = 760 mmHg = 760 torr
1 atm = 101.325 kPa
1 atm = 14.7 psi
Gas Pressure result of
collisions of particles in a
gas with an object.
results from particles in
Gases Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives / Targets
Where to read
about this objective
I can define the following terms: Gas Gases Notes; Pg
Pressure, Vacuum, Atmospheric
Pressure, Barometer, Vapor Pressure,
Gas Law Practice
1. In a certain experiment a sample of helium in a vacuum system was compressed
from a volume of 200.0 mL to a volume of 0.240 mL where its pressure was
found to be 30.0 mm Hg. What was the original pressure of the helium?
2. A hydrogen g
Gas Law Review Problems Honors
A container holds three gases: oxygen, carbon dioxide, and helium. The partial
pressures of the three gases are 2.00 atm, 3.00 atm, and 4.00 atm, respectively.
What is the total pre
Absolute Zero Project
New research in science is often shared at conferences and many honors degrees
require that you present your experiments. For this project you will be preparing a presentation
board using Microsoft PowerPoint. You may use a poster te
Determining Absolute Zero Project
Gas laws describe the relationship between the pressure, temperature and
volume of a gas. In the first experiment, you will investigate the relationship between the
temperature of a gas sample and the volume it occupies (
Boyles Law Lab
During this lab we will examine the relationship between pressure and volume. Robert
Boyle wrote in 1662 that:
For a fixed amount of an ideal gas kept at fixed temperature, Pressure and volume are
We will do an exper
Specific Heat Worksheet
1. How much heat in kilojoules is released when 25.0 g of water is cooled from 85.0C to
2. A metal weighing 50.0 g absorbs 220.0 J of heat when its temperature increases by
120.0C. What is the specific heat of the metal?
Calorimetry Lab - Specific Heat
The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a solid body depends on
its change in temperature (T), its mass (m), and an intrinsic characteristic of the
material forming the body called specific heat ( cp). The h
Matte r and Ene rg y
Matte r is a te rm us e d to de s c ribe a
c o lle c tio n o f partic le s whic h make
u p o bje c ts .
Kine tic The o ry (partial)
1) All matte r is made up o f tiny
p artic le s .
2) The s e tiny partic le s are always in
m o tio