18501890 (Birth of a commodity)
Ancient reliance on seeps
China: hand dug pits2600BP
Cable drilling tool invented in Sichuan province.
Salt water wells reach 140m by 300AD.
1132, Chinese driller reach 1,000mfor brine. And along the way, they
Historical development of resource usage
o Adoption dates vary with culture: typically around 3000BP in eastern
o Cyprus major Cu exporter 3200 BP, Cu trade disrupted = price
increase Cu + shortage of tin. . . .prompted the sw
06 January, 2015
Resources can be initially subdivided into:
a) Renewable resources
b) Non-renewable resources
The two of these are based on the time scale that is used. The timeline is slow, that
they cannot be replenished quick enough.
First Energy Crisis
Agricultural Revolution (14001698)
Prior to this time, no genetic breeding, fertilizers, 3 fold crop rotationnon-
Surplus of food stock, which formed the basis of the trade.
Birth of the textile industry =
Subsurface Igneous and metamorphic processes
a) Formation of granite (and other silica-rich igneous rocks).
a. Granites form due to the melting of preexisting rocks, specifically
within the crust.
b. Melting of preexisting rx/formation of grani
Weathering and Erosion
Rocks and minerals exposed at earths surface subject rain, wind, frost and
biological activity (weathering).
Movement of materials from point of origin to new place of deposition =
Total cost (power) email to letter
Utilization of Coal
Pf coal combustion
Loy ynag power A station (2.2 GW)
a. Requires 60,000 tons of coal per day
B station 1.2GW.
Supplies 60% of Victorias city power
Resources (how they occur in a broad way)
Earth bound derived resources are NOT occurrences.
All earth bound derived resources formed, modified, or destroyed by geologic
These resources are generated via igneous, metamorpuihc and sedim
January 8, 15
Mining And Ore Bodies
Typical gold ore bodies, if it were the size of this classroom the rock still has
to be crushed, smelted and solidified.
Average: 0.03% gold is present in the crust.
o Reserve: can be mined using mode
Macro molecular structure, mol weight >10k.
Not a crystalline substance, like mineral or rock. More like a molecular stew.
Very difficult to determine if coal has a molecular structure.
Classification and Characterization
Everything up to and including coal.
Scantron, 100 questions
2 sections: definition, draw.
o 25 multiple choice.
o Think of the answer before you read the options.
a. Elemental composition:
Geology 270 Lecture Notes Feb. 5, 16
Fossil Fuels Coal
Bulk of worlds coal is used to generate electricity. Coal is a raw material for a lot of other things
2nd world war, Germans ran campaign on gasoline derived from coal.
Utilization of coal:
February 22, 2016
With increasing depth, pore space decreases. Weight of overlying rock crushes mineral grains to flat. As
mineral grains flatten, pore diameter decreases. NANOMETERS (shale). Depth associated with generation
Geology 270 Lecture Notes
February 12, 2016
Kerogen Type and Organofacies
Variability in conventional resources, shale will vary vertically and laterally such as in the Bakken
formation. Variation of organic matter can vary laterally within a basin. Diffe
Energy I Fossil Fuels
Energy requirements have changed through time (type)
Demand for energy has increased through time (amount)
o There is a disproportionate demand for energy
That varies with culture
The level of technological advancement
W Y TC H FA R M R E S E A RC H
Main challenges when drilling a well that is 10 km in length is torque, drag, directional
control and potential mud losses.2
BP had an entire year to prepare drilling M-11, so they tested many of their ideas on the