Photochemistry- is the branch of chemistry that deals with the chemical processes
that are caused by the absorption of light energy. The process by which a
photochemical reaction is carried out iscalled photolysis. Photolysis is usually
initiated by infra
STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM
Matter has mass and takes up space. Atoms are basic building blocks of matter, and
cannot be chemically subdivided by ordinary means.
The word atom is derived from the Greek word atom which means indivisible. The
Greeks concluded t
Alloys are basically a mixture of two or more metals. Don't forget that there
are many elements on the periodic table. Elements like calcium (Ca) and
potassium (K) are considered metals. Of course, there are also metals like
silver (Ag) and gold (A
Notes on bases and acids
1. General Definitions:
Acid: a substance which when added to water produces hydrogen ions [H+].
Base: a substance which when added to water produces hydroxide ions
Acids: react with zinc, magnesium, o
What is Matter?
Matter is everything around you. Matter is anything made of atoms and molecules.
Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. If you are new to the idea of
mass, it is the amount of stuff in an object. We talk about the diff
Enthalpy (H) - The sum of the internal energy of the system plus the product of the
pressure of the gas in the system and its volume:
After a series of rearrangements, and if pressure if kept constant, we can arrive at
PH Calculations: Strong Acids and Bases
Calculate the pH of (a) 0.055 M HNO3 (b) 4.55 M HCl
Both are strong acids
1.(a) HNO3 is a strong acid HNO3(aq) H+(aq) + NO3
Therefore the concentration of H+ in the final solution is 0.055 M
(b) HCl(aq) H+(aq) + Cl-
balancing chemical equations
What do Equations show?
1. The reactants which enter into a reaction.
2. The products which are formed by the reaction.
3. The amounts of each substance used and each substance produced.
a. Two important principles to r