Ultra-Large-Scale Systems: The Software Challenge of the Future
Software Engineering Institute
Carnegie Mellon University
4500 Fifth Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890
Requirements Eng (1996) 1 : 170-189
9 1996 Springer-Verlag London Limited
A Conceptual Framework for Requirements Engineering
Centrefor HCI Design,Schoolof Informatics,City University,London, UK
A framework for
From Start Up to Shut
Down: The Rise and Fall of
Written by Fred Nickols
Most people agree that organizations have a life cycle; that, like people, they pass
through some identifiable stages. Some see seven stages, some see as many as
Charles Edeki, International Journal of Computer Science and Mobile Applications,
Vol.1 Issue. 3, September- 2013, pg. 13-17
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND MOBILE APPLICATIONS - IJCSMA
Agile Unified Process
USF ID: U49332825
Hot topic Proposal
With the advent of 21st century, the dot com boom thrusted many
organization to achieve what they had never hoped for. As the internet
came into play, any organization with a dot com at the end rece
4. Information superhighway
global, high-speed communications network that will carry voice, data, video and other forms of
information all over
Organisations which have a requirement for sharing and distributing electronic information
normally have three choices:
- Use a proprietary groupware package such as Lotus Notes
- Set up an Intranet
- Set up a connection to the Int
communication (real time communication). To participate in a chat group, you need to join
by selecting a channel or a topic. You communicate live with others by typing words on your
computer. Other members of your channel immediately see the words on thei
Datainterdependence allows changes in technology and changes in application to
be insulated from each other.
3. There are four main types of file organisation:
the transmitted signals. This includes voltage levels, connector types, cabling, data rate, etc. It
provides the physical interface.
3.6 Network cable types
The cable type used on a network depends on several parameters including:
highest specification of
cable allows extremely
high bit rates over long distances. Fibre-opticcables do not interfere with nearby cables and
give greater security, more protection from electrical damage b
differentiation and integration that suit the organisations environment.
e. In a predictable environment integration is achieved through the management
hierarchy, particular at higher levels and through rules, procedures, budgets, etc. In an
DATA COMMUNICATION & COMPUTER NETWORKS
M A N A G E M E N T I N F O R M AT I O N S Y S T E M S 244
M A N A G E M E N T I N F O R M AT I O N S Y S T E M S 256
EMERGING ISSUES IN MANAGEMENT INFORMATION
SYSTEMS AND E-COMMERCE
When you have comple
technology. However they are slow to develop and multiple standard organisations develop
different standards for the same functions.
3.9 Application of computer networks within an organisation
Connectivity is the ability and means to link a microcomputer
A virtual circuit is a circuit or path between points in a network that appears to be a discrete,
which specific circuits are
applied in some technical or practical manner. The process of making semiconductor
chips falls into the patent regime.
work. Subject matter protected
by copyrights inc
between provider and other computers on the Internet. It is less expensive than SLIP or PPP but
not as fast or convenient.
The standard protocol for the Internetis TCP/IP. TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet
Some widely used
o Shockwave from macromedia used for web-based games, live
provide internal e-mail, mailing lists,
those within the
Extranets (external Intranets) allow two or more companies to share parts of their Intranets
A data warehouse is a subject-oriented, integrated, time-variant, non-volatile collection of data in
support of managements decision-making process.
Data warehouses organise around subjects, as opposed to traditional application systems
They automatically submit search requests to several indices and search engines. They
receive the results, sort them, eliminate duplicates and create an index.
The four commonly used services on the Internetare:
Telnet- Telnet allows you to connect to another computer (host) on the Internet.
DATA COMMUNICATION & COMPUTER NETWORKS
M A N A G E M E N T I N F O R M AT I O N S Y S T E M S 252
paper document exchange such as purchase orders, invoices or material release schedules, the
proper controls and edits need to be built within each companys application system to allow this
communication to take place.
halfway around the
and leisure activities. Examples include Hewlett Packard (HP), Compaq and Dell.
They include desktops, laptops and palmtops.
1. The question addresses the organisation a
companies can have total control of their own communication system without dependence on
other companies. Business and home users also get higher speed reception than if using ordinary
telephone service or ISDN.
There are five kinds of communicati
b) What reasons would you put forward for adopting a database as a basis for an
of Kenya (ICPAK) on information management into th
into digital bits. They resemble conventional answering machines and electronic mail systems.
They can receive large numbers of incoming calls and route them to appropriate voice mailboxes
which are recorded voice messages. They can forward calls and deli
(ii) Message the text of the e-mail communication.
(iii) Signature may include senders name, address and telephone number (optional).
The most important element of