Is it policy first and opinion second?
American public opinion is uniformed about politics and international affairs
American public is uninterested in foreign affairs
Americans interested in foreign affairs are dedicated
Evolution of Weapons effectiveness
1945 great leap in firepower from conventional 2,000-pound air delivered bomb
to the 20-kiloton atomic bomb of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki type.
Less than 10 years later a quantum leap from kiloton to
Military doctrinal shifts
Doctrinal shifts: focus on the continued reevaluation of the relative strength of
friends and enemies
Since WWII 4 major shifts:
Containment (Truman) nuclear and conventional weapons into a military
From superiority to parity
Shift away from Compellence, late 1950s to end of cold war. Why?
US itself became vulnerable to ICBMS, MAD world
Nuclear weapons now performed a different function
Deterrence involves emphasizing the impac
It is interwoven in the fabric of American social, political, and economic life so
that its recommendations carry influence.
Each of the branches have developed influential allies in congress
Structure: Each branch of the military
Presidents and the state department
White house control: 1947 landmark national security act, set up national security
Led to massive expansion of the white house staff dealing with political, military,
and diplomatic questio
How values, attitudes, opinions change
Values are enduring; attitudes are changing/shifting
1. Generati (generational model) 25-30 years. It generates that change, not
2. Zeitgeist- spirit of the times- event
Mismatch between rhetoric and reality- bay of pigs; racial discrimination;
Ideals were prostituted in practice
Consequences: End of War; tow American presidents toppled; legal barriers to