Neuro Midterm Review
Introduction to the Neuron
a. Neurons contain machinery for extremely active protein synthesis and packing, like liver
and pancreas cells. (Ribosomes in ER, Golgi complex, mitochondria).
b. Microtubules (of and tubulin
Cell Death During Development and Synapse Formation
a. About a 75% neuronal survival rate through human gestation.
b. Cells die to match neuron and target cell populations, as error correction, to generate
sexually dimorphic regions of the ne
Axon Guidance and Neuronal Regeneration
a. If you cut a frogs optic nerve and rotate the eye, the original targets are re-innervated,
but theres no orientation compensation by the CNS.
b. This suggests a fixed set of cues directs connection
a. At day 25 the brains just a tube of rapidly proliferating cells.
b. At day 35 flexures develop and post-mitotic neurons migrate away.
c. At day 100 the cerebral cortex has begun to cover the rest of the brain.
d. By day 210 or s
Conduction of Decremental and Regenerative Signals
Cable properties of neurons are passive properties, flow w/o channels.
a. Time constant () and length constant () take into account membrane resistance,
axoplasm (internal) resistance, and the thinness
To be a neurotransmitter, minimal criteria is:
a. Must mimic the actions of an endogenous transmittersufficient.
b. Must be generated by _ neurotransmitter? sufficient
c. Must be selectively blocked necessary
d. Doesnt have to be rele
Amino Acid and Gaseous Neurotransmitters
a. Amino acids are the principal transmitters with GABA at 20-40% of synapses, glycine at
25% in the spinal cord and glutamate at as much as 50% of all synapses in the brain.
GABA and glycine are the p
Somatosensory System: Central Mechanisms
a. Dorsal horn is divided into distinct laminae, with different types of sensory information
entering at different layers.
b. Lamina I:
i. Cold, itch, pain, sensual touch.
ii. Projects along lateral
Molecular Basis for Pain and Temperature
a. Mechanical force can cause deformation in nociceptor terminals or release of chemicals
from damaged cells that then stimulate APs in nociceptors.
b. Nociceptive neurons must be able to distinguish b
Introduction to Cerebral Cortex and Thalamus
a. Access to the cerebral cortex for all sensory inputs except for olfaction occurs via the
i. Even in the olfactory system, where information reaches the cortex without
processing in the
Somatosensory System: Peripheral Mechanisms
Overview and definitions:
a. Each of the sensory systems consists of a receptor zone followed by alternating
transmission and synaptic zones.
i. Receptor zone is thousands or millions of receptors that conver