Uncertainty, Precision, Accuracy: Chapter 1
What is an uncertainty?
A measured value that cannot be determined exactly
Actual number could be above or below the measured reading
Error in precision
How do we represent uncertainties?
Need a ran
Stoichiometry = the study of any numerical observation with a chemical reaction
Using the mole method to determine how much reactant is needed and product is created based
on the number of moles
Solubility Rules for Ionic Compounds in Water
Compounds with alkali metal ions
Compounds with ammonimum ions
Nitrates, bicarbonates, chlorates, halides
Halides with: Ag*, Hg^2+, Pb^2+
Sulfates with: Ag^+, Ca^2+, Sr
Significant Figures: Chapter 1
Why are significant figures important?
Indicates how precise the measurement is
You are only as precise as your least precise measurement!
How do you determine what figures are significant?
Physical and Chemical Properties: Chapter 1
What is the difference between a chemical and physical property?
Physical property can be measured/observed without changing the identity of the
o Ex. Color, odor, phase, volume, mass.
Periodic Table: Chapter 2
How is the periodic table arranged?
Increasing atomic number
Similar chemical and physical properties
Vertical columns or families/groups
What is the difference between metals, metalloids
Chemical Change: Chapter 1
What does it mean to undergo a chemical change?
Two or more substances reacted and a new substance was made
o Ex. Rust
Cannot get the substance back without using a chemical reaction
Indicators could be:
o A gas
Intro to Chemistry: Chapter 1
How do we define chemistry?
The study of how matter interacts with itself and other matter
Matter is anything that has mass and volume (which is anything other than nothing)
How is the scientific method organiz
Atoms Molecules and Ions: Chapter 2
What are the main components of Daltons theory?
Elements are composed of atoms, which are specific to that element
Compounds are made up of more than one element
Atoms (matter) cannot be created or destroye
Atomic mass = mass of an atom in atomic units or AMU
1 amu = 1/12 mass of a carbon 12 atom
AKA atomic weight
Relative atomic mass = average mass of all known existing isotopes of an element
Proportioned based on abundance
Atomic Mass and Number: Chapter 2
What does the mass number (A) tell you?
The total mass of the atom
How can we determine the number of neutrons using Z and A?
We assume that electrons have no mass
Neutrons = A Z (round down)
Can the number o