What happens to culture?
Culture . . . is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, arts, morals, law, custom,
and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.
-Edward Tylor, Primitive Culture
Culture as mea
Unemployment and Inequality
Unemployment and Globalization
Some of each?
A process by which the manufacturing-based economy of a country or region declines.
Especially evident in US and Europe (though also Asia) in t
Two Theories of Social Change (circa 1950)
Modernization Theory/Development Theory
Western societies are the most developed.
Other societies are less developed, undeveloped.
Undeveloped/traditional societies are on a
Flexibility and the New Capitalism
David Harvey, The Condition of Postmodernity (1990)
Capitalism underwent a decisive shift in 1970s.
Fordism and Beyond
1945-1973: High period of Fordism
1973: Sharp recession marks beginning of period of restructuring an
Nash and Bolivian Dependence
Bolivia is resource-rich, but does not benefit.
Completely dependent on world market, but incompletely integrated.
High foreign investment in the mines (though later nationalized.)
Bolivia depends on tin export for survival.
Consequences of Manufacturing Job Loss
Effects on unionization
Effects on local communities
Effects on individuals: What kind of jobs can they get now?
Rise of Service Sector
56% US workforce in 1960, 73% in 1994
Modest increase in high-wage professional
Globalized Work and Local Understandings
Continuation of last time
What happens to culture with globalization?
Globalization becomes indigenized.
E.g. People modify global phenomena to fit the local culture and/or look at global ph
Gendered Factory Roles in Multinationals
Men in heavy industry.
Women (usually young women) often predominate in light industry.
Global labor pool mostly female.
Womens supposed advantages in assembly-line work: manual dexterity, attentiveness, docility,
Changes at Ford
1903: Ford founded, all-around mechanics put together cars in one spot.
1908: Ford launches Model T, several slightly specialized mechanics work
side by side, car stays in place.
1914: Ford introduces first moving assembly line
Advanced Liberal Governmentality (Nikolas Rose)
Contemporary democracies discourage outright control.
Instead, they encourage a type of governance called advanced liberal
It seems like employees (and citizens, in general) are free to act
A Variety of Possibilities
People modify global phenomena to fit the local culture and/or look at global phenomena
through local lenses.
Cultural mixes: syncretism (religion), creoles (language)
Different degrees of acculturati