Assertive Messaging and Style
Intentioned use of material culture to mark social membership, identity and
Will relate to specific social or adaptive priorities of society.
Necessary relationship between relative visibility of object and the sc
Old Copper Culture
Europe in Overview
Microlithic stone tool industries in Northwest Europe
Primarily a response to the gradual opening of the more northerly areas of Europe
Fundamental Regional Differences
Sources of Variability
To understand similarity we need to consider where variation comes from.
Material Culture is Intentionally Constituted
Artifact forms and styles cannot be assumed to be simply passive traits of a past
Folk vs Popular Cultur
Site Content Catchment
Rather than assuming that location reflects resource importance, identify the nearest
source of materials recovered from the site to understand site location.
Turns site catchment analysis on its head
Requires that specific
North America in Overview
Llano Complex (Clovis and related traditions): 12,500 - 10,500 BC
Big Game Hunting, emphasis on Mammoth, highly mobile, small bands
Post-Llano: 10,500 - 7,000 BC
Shift from Mammoth to Bison
Single sites may provide a biased view of past subsistence activities
Most hunter gatherers follow a complex schedule of movements matched to the
shifting pattern of seasonal available resources.
The Settlement System
A series of loc
As an Archaeological Problem
How do archaeologists make sense of the materials they recover?
To what extent is it possible to infer the template or classification of objects that was
in the mind of the past maker?
Lay all the artifacts out on the table and group together those that look similar
Define key attributes and create a classification based on a hierarchy of attributes
Europe and North America
The End of the Pleistocene
Final Retreat of Continental Ice Sheets
Rising of global sea level
Recolonization of northern Europe and America by temperate biotic communities
Series of Smaller-Scaled Clim
Variability and Patterning
Culture as a mediating construct
Cultural behavior is patterned (constrained)
Archaeological phenomena generated from cultural behavior is patterned
Archaeological deposits are a cumulative record