Volcanoes and Volcanism
Volcano - a vent through which magma, solid rock debris, and gases are ejected.
Classified by the type of eruption:
- largely a function of viscosity and dissolved gas content of the magma.
Three Types of Systems
Isolated - no mass transfer
- no energy transfer
Closed - no mass transfer
- energy transfer
Open - mass transfer
- energy transfer
The Earth is a system itself. What type of system is it?
Earth's Major Subsystems
-The Earth can be
Space and Earth Systems
Big Bang - Reigning Theory of the formation of the Universe
Nebular Theory - Origin of the Solar System
Swirling Cloud of Star Dust
Rotating Cloud Flattens into a Disk
Condensation and Accretion
In general, as transport di
Seismic Shadow Zones
We hypothesize that the outer core is molten because of the way seismic waves are
reflected or refracted at the interface between the mantle and the outer core.
-by the dampening of S-waves collectively forming shadow zones.
Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks
Sediments - Material (such as gravel, sand, mud, and lime) that is transported by
wind, water, ice, or gravity;
Material that is precipitated from solution;
Deposits of organic origin (such as coal and coral reefs).
Isotopes - elements with different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus.
Cations (positive charge, lose electrons) Ca+
Anions (negative charge, gain electrons) CO3Pore fluids increase the rate of metamorphic reactions by:
storing ions involved in r
Factors affecting deformation
1. Temperature as the temperature increases, materials become more ductile.
2. Confining pressure as pressure increases (weight if overlying rock), materials
become more ductile.
3. Rate of deformation if stress is applied ra
How we know whats inside.
- Calculating Earths Density
- Gravitational influence, mass
- Volume, Shape, Diameter
- calc. Density of Earth 5.5 g/cm3
- Surface 2.8 g/cm3
2. Drilling through the crust
3. Earths delivery service
- combination of atoms of one or more elements in a specific ratio.
Ions - atoms with excess positive or negative charge (gain or loss of electrons from the
- Ions dissolved in water will combine to form compounds.
Types of Bon