Roots of Muslim Terrorism Al-Banna to al-Zawahiri Koran forbids murder, as well as starting a war of aggression. No such this as Islamic terrorism, only Muslim Historical Background o Ottomans lose WWI to British o End of Ottoman Empire, 1923 rise o
Central Saudi Arabia is almost all unsuitable for agriculture. Except for Riyadh it is mainly
desert. About 22 million Saudis and 6 million guest workers by official records, to Juan Cole
thinks fewer native people and more guests.
It has been suggested that due to Iraqs position surrounded by bigger, more populous countries
it is like the Germany of the Middle East.
Iraq gets about 2.5 million oil and exports about 1.8 Iran exports 2.3 Saudi Arabia drills 9 and
The Gulf War
Kuwait began as a part of the Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans had a viceroy in Baghdad and
sometimes Basra, and Basra controlled Kuwait. It was an empire based on vassalage rather than
direct central authority. This means that there is a (somewh
Iraqi army was one of the most advanced in the region
US military was worried about another land war in Asia. Centcom (central command) is the
The army claimed that Iraq could be pushed out of Kuwait through airpower. It wasnt true.
Iraqs WMD programs were discontinued for the most part after the First Gulf War. Its nuclear
program certainly, and in 1995 its biological weapons program.
WMDs was a term used by the administration as a propaganda term: mustard gas is not a WMD.
Roots of Muslim Terrorism
3 arenas for the growth of Muslim Radicalism: India, Wahabiism, and Egypt.
Azhar Seminary is in Cairo it is a very important Sunni seminary.
Egypt is like DC, NYC, and LA secularism, religion, art, and politics all rolled into on
The Pushtuns are in the south of Afghanistan. They speak a Persian language, similar to but not
understandable by Iranians. They were known as pastoral nomads.
Pastoral nomadic societies tend to be organized by kinship and tribes. Clans are NOT TO FUCK
Al Qaeda and 911
Usama Bin Laden (1957 ) was the son of Muhammad Bin Laden an extremely wealthy
contractor of Yemeni origin. specifically Hadhramawt. Hadhramawt is known for Sufism.
His father came to Saudi Arabia in the 30s and took advantage of the oil
Summer 2006-2007: The Great Iraqi Massacre thousands were killed per month.
The blowup of the Samarra Shrine in 2006 was what finally kicked the civil war up.
Shiite militias decided to, basically, liquidate the Sunnis in Iraq, in order to stem Sunni terr
Both Afghanistan and Pakistan are MULTI-ETHNIC states.
The Talibans rise marks the beginning of major ethnic disputes in Afghanistan. In the south
emerged a Pashtun region, happy with the Taliban. In the North were Tajiks, Hazaras, Uzbeks,
who viewed the
North of Afghanistan (Mazar-e Sharif) has Uzbek and Turkik speakers (around 10%). North is
more economically developed. There is natural gas, mining, a small industrial working class on
which the Soviet Union exerted economic and politica
The Cold War in the Middle East Three outstanding Features o Bipolarity o Nuclear Weaponry o Ideology Nuclear Weapons o Weapons of mass destruction o War between superpowers unthinkable Revisionism o Soft revisionists blamed Truman o Saw new aggressi
The Iran-Iraq War Iraq and Afghanistan were not the target of much of academia due to the lack of access. Old Regime o 1958 2500 individuals own 55%of Iraq's privately held land 80% of Iraq's families are landless Urbanization o From 1950s o Mushro
Saudi Arabia and the Reagan Alliance Wealthy by comparison to other neighbors o Wealth concentrated at the top o Many poor workers Surrounded by other nations, some with large armies. Large numbers of various minorities live within Saudi Arabia Najd-
(1917) British establish mandate in Palestine, Configure it as a homeland for Jewish people, Palestinian population boom, Jewish immigration
is a former Israeli Prime Minister and military leader whose political care
The Arab-Israeli Wars And the United States
Population of Palestine 1943 o Jewish settlers 500,000 Have 7% of the land o Palestinians 1,176,571 o Total 1,676,571 o Estate Fragmentation Population growth Islamic law dictates equal inheritance t
Abd al-Aziz al-Hakim
He was a founding member in 1982 of SIIC and headed their military wing, the Badr Organization. He was the top candidate listed for the United Iraqi Coalition during the first Iraqi legislative election of January 2005 but has no
The Afghanistan Wars 1978-1989 Communist Coup o April 27, 1978, communists make a coup o Taraki o Later assassinated in 1979 Communism is non ethic system Budding intellectuals in the country embraced communism. Muslim fundamentalism connected people
The Formation of the Middle East Beginnings of Islam o Muhammad 580-632 C.E. o Mecca Pagans o Hijra of 622 to Medina Muslims o Pagans attacked Muslims but Muslims prevailed o Islam was not born as a militant religion o Koran call out against polythe
The Gulf War
Air War January 15, 1991 Saddam had a series of underground bunkers which were how he was able to stay alive. Tank divisions loyal to Saddam, from Tikrit, Sunnis, suspicious of others Scud Attacks o Beginning January 18 Iraq be
The Wars of the Taliban Afghani Ethnic Groups o Pushtuns in south 40% of Population Ruling class Strict Muslims, strong tribal code too o Hazaras in center 22% of Population Similar to Mongols Shiite, Persian Close relations to Iran o Tajiks i
The Lebanese Wars
Lebanon gains independence in 194? From France Near feudal system was present with divisions between lords made by religion. Family, Clan Religion and Political Leadership (based on religion) held people together closely
The Kuwait Crisis of 1990 and the beginnings of the gulf war Iraqi Claims to Kuwait o Kuwait had been an Ottoman province o Under Basra o Seceded 1899-1911 with British help Qasim and Kuwait o Iraq claims reactivated by Col. Qasim o When Kuwait becom
Pakistan! India! Oh my!
When India and Pakistan were partitioned, Kashmir had a Muslim majority but a Hindu raja. The
raja asked to be part of India, and was included. Pakistan has wanted Kashmir since.
Population of Pakistan: 170 million. Population of I