Introduction: The labs 1a and 1b are about the calibration of the micropipette and the peristaltic pump. The micropipettes calibration is determine by the volume calculated by density and weight. The peristaltic pump is calibrated by the volume flow
Net ionic equation: chemical equation from which the spectator ions have been removed
Spectator ion: an ion in an ionic equation that does not take part in the reaction
1.Occurs in aqueous solution when one product is insoluble
Lewis Acids and Bases
Lewis Base: Electron-pair donor; all ligands are Lewis bases
Lewis Acid: Electron-pair acceptor; all metals are Lewis acids
Ligand: A molecule or atom that bonds to a metal by donating electrons.
A molecular bond formed b
Kinetic Energy and Temperature
Therefore, temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of a gas
A gas at room temperature has particles with a specific distribution of speeds.
This distribution is asymm
Ionic Theory of Solutions
1.Dissociation: when ionic compounds separate into their.
2.Electrolyte: dissociated ions in water that allow for.
3.Not all electrolytes are ionic compounds. Some molecular.
4.Some molecular compounds dissolve but do not dissoci
M(H2O)5(OH-)+(n-1) + H+
Metals can also serve as Bronsted acids
Bis, Tris, Tetrakis, Hexaqua
Two or more electron donators i
Cv=(3/2)R *No energy is lost to work at constant V
Enthalpy: H = U +PV
1cal = 4.184J
U = q + w = ncT PextV
Henrys Law: the partial pressure of a gas above a solution is proportional to the
amount of gas d
Sulfides (S 2 )react with acids to form hydrogen-sulfide (H 2
provides quantity of solute in a standard volume of solution
Involve the transfer of electrons from one species to another
1.Oxidation: defined as the loss of electrons
The particle volume reduces the effective path distance of the particle between collisions.
Therefore, collisions happen more frequently
Attractive forces between particle reduces pressure, because particles that tend to associate with
1.Acid: a species (molecule or ion) that donates a proton (H+) to another species in a protein
2.Base: a species (molecule or ion) that accepts a proton (H+) in a proton-transfer reaction
3.In water, H+(aq) exists as H 3 0+ which is a hy
Arises from mechanical interactions: weight, gas molecules colliding with the sides of a
The total pressure from a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures of the individual
Ptotal = P