Vitamins, Vitamin D and skin color
What is the difference between fat and water soluble vitamins?
o Fat soluble
Stored in fat tissue, can cause problems if you consume too much.
If you are fatter, you have more capacity to store fat soluble
Secular trend in growth
What is a secular trend?
Long term change in a measured variable (as opposed to short term fluctuations)
Stock market, temperature, home prices
Secular trend in stature
People are getting taller
Lower disease bur
Brief overview of traditional diets
Caveat = no part of the world has been isolated from other foods of the world
fufu, plantain, yams, maize, millet, sorghum, teff, wheat, peanuts, pumpkin, legumes, okra,
tomatoes, peppers, fish chicken beef, dai
What are allergies?
Contact, injection, ingestion, inhalation
Food allergy basics
Abnormal response by immune system to a food protein
Antibodies to allergen (usually protein)
Immune system releases histamine and other chemicals to at
Life expectancy vs. lifespan
Life expectancy: average predicted years of life left from a particular age (for population/sex)
Lifespan: how long you actually live
Life expectancy @ birth shortened by infant mortality
Infant/child mortality, better health
Modern human diet in the 20th century
1. Give some examples of traditional foods eaten in Africa, Polynesia, North America, Northern
Europe, Asia, and the Middle East.
Africa: fufu, plaintain, yams, maize, millet, sorghum, teff, wheat, peanuts, pumpkin,
Maternal metabolism in pregnancy
How much energy to grow a baby?
Where does it all go?
Breasts 1-2 lbs
Baby 6-8 lbs
Placenta 1-2 lbs
Uterus 1-2 lbs
Amniotic fluid 2-3 lbs
Blood 3-4 lbs
Protein and fat storage 8-10 lbs
Body fluids 3-
Eat food, not too much, mostly plants
dont eat anything your great-grandmother wouldnt recognize as food
avoid ingredients that are unfamiliar, long lists of ingredients
avoid food products that make health claims
shop the perip
A secular trend is a long term change in any measured variable as opposed to short term fluctuations.
Some examples include stock market changes, global temperature, home prices, etc. The secular trend in
stature is that people are getting taller and this
Where have we been?
humans are large bipedal apes with big brains
Trends in nonhuman primates
increasing brain size associated with:
higher quality diet
smaller gut size
frugivores have higher quality diet, bigger brains, smaller
Exam 3 review material
Long term change in measured variable
o Opposed to short-term fluctuations
Secular trends in growth in 20th century
People getting taller
o Getting weaker along with taller
Exam 2 study guide
Traditional vs. western diet
o Variety of sources of protein and vegetables (omnivorous) high
diversity across regions
o All have a source of carbs
o Eat what is available in the area
o *Not associated with metab
Traditional vs. Western diet
Western diet is high in processed foods, red meat, fats and oils, high fat dairy, refined flour, sugar,
Low diversity and more energy dense
Wartime food technologies
Increased in canned and processed foods
Diet and Dental Evolution
Canine size and mandible shape
Coarse, large molars
Thick molars = large mandible
Gracile and robust had large mandible
Large muscle = large jaw muscles.
Craniofacial changes associated
Hunting, Gathering, Agriculture and Domestication
What types of environments are hunter-gatherers restricted to living in?
o Evolution and control of fire enabled true hunting and gathering to be a
way of life.
o Low population density, migratory settleme
Used to be useful organ when we were early primates;
Humans do not have ability to break down cellulose of plants, all plants have cover that is
made up as cellulose that is essentially plastic.
Cellulose contains a lot of vitamin and calories;
The Earliest Primate Roots
Taxonomy: fossils named reflecting place where it was found.
-50-55 million years ago; some mammals lived on land some climbed in trees.
What is lactase?
o The enzyme that breaks down lactose.
What is lactose, in what foods is it food and what is the name of the enzyme that
helps to digest it?
o Lactose is the sugar found in milk.
o It is in cow milk and human milk.
We eat to satisfy our energy requirements.
Humans expend more energy than reptiles because we are endothermic and need energy
in order to regulate our body temperatures, need it to insolate ourselves.
Terminology of Energy Metabolism
Carbs, Fats, and Proteins
What is the main function of carbohydrates?
o Energy Source
Oxidized for energy
Converted to glycogen
Converted into triglycerides
What are three different types of carbohydrates?
Ate 4,000 calories a day but expended most of the calories searching for food.
Since becoming homo erectus, we have spent most of our energy and time hunting for
Genes and biology evolved under high levels o
Humans are results of homo sapiens and highly advanced Neanderthals.
2 populations: Homo erectus went from Africa to Europe to Asia
Homo erectus that remained in Africa evolved very rapidly and became homo spaiens
Anatomically modern hom
65 million years ago mammals became dominant species.
Dinosaurs are still among us as birds
Difference between dinosaurs and mammals :
Mammals keep themselves warm-constant internal body temperature
This is very important because when the
Exam question: Describe or discuss the nutritionally-related factors that may have
contributed to the dominance of mammals.
Dinosaurs could not keep up body temperatures because they are cold blooded
Factors the differentiate dinosaurs fro
Quest for Energy, Anthropometrics, and TEE
Be able to list the six nutrients.
What is the role of each of the six nutrients?
Oxidized for energy