What does it mean for drosophila to have segmentation?
Identifying Developmental Regulators
1. Generate _ randomly
2. Determine genes that are mutated using _
3. Use the _ phenotype to infer the function of _
4. Use molecular techniques to analyze _
1. Which alteration to the transcription factor E2F would most likely promote
A. An E2F protein that cannot be phosphorylated by S-cyclin B
B. An E2F protein that cant bind to the Rb protein
C. An E2F protein that cant bind to DNA
1. Describe tumor-suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes and how they become instrumental in
producing a cancer phenotype.
2. Describe the role of normal Retinoblastoma (Rb). How can it lead to cancer?
3. Describe the Ras pathway and how that can lea
Action Potentials and Neurons
1. What are the three conformation states for voltage-gated Na+ channels in
A. open for passive transport; closed but sensitive to sodium levels; closed
but insensitive to sodium levels
B. open for passive transport;
Definition: Disease of individual cells
Result of uncontrolled proliferation of individual cells
Due to genetic changes within individual cells
NOT bimodal state: cells are not normal or cancerous
Encompasses a broad range of phenotypes
Biology 172 Winter 2016: Syllabus
W Jan 6
Intro & Scope of Biology
Cell Theory; Basic Chemistry
Nucleic Acids and DNA
Study Group Exam 1 Activity
Draw one big cell and divide it into three sections on a chalkboard. Each section will be for the
three different types of transport:
1. Active Transport
Bio 172 Fall 2015
Information in the cell is passed from _ to _ (via _) to _ via
What are the components of a nucleotide?
What are the Pyrimidine Bases? Which 2 are used in DNA? RNA?
What are the Purine bases?
Tumor supressor which prevents the cell from transitioning
into S phase from G1 Rb
Ability of cancer cells to invade the blood stream and move
from one location to another Metastasis
Structural identity gene in animals Hox gene
Gene responsible for yeast
1) In lactose induction, lactose binds to the lac I repressor protein
causing the confirmation of the repressor to change and function of
binding to operator is lost. Therefore, RNA Polymerase can bind to the
promoter and there will be frequent transcript
1) A higher (G-C) concentration in DNA from a mutation. More numerous strong bonds. More saturated
fatty acids in their membranes to have a higher melting point in membranes.
2) Ionic bonds may be affected by this acidic environment. Acid may destroy prot
Campbell (8th ed.) p 192-198
Photosynthesis - Light Reactions
The light reactions of photosynthesis involve the use light energy to move electrons
through an electron transport chain (ETC) located in the thylakoid membranes inside
This practice exam contains 50 multiple choice questions, the real exam will have from 50 to 55 questions.
You will have 110 minutes to complete the exam. We encourage you to take this practice exam in a single
sitting, under the same time constraints and
Principles of Microeconomics
Instructor: Professor Justin Wolfers
Contact: Please direct all course-related email to email@example.com
Lecture meeting times: Mondays and Wednesdays, 2:30-4:00pm.
Following Michigan norms, class
Week 2: Lifes (tiny) diversity & Data
Jan. 11, 12, 13
Note: The quiz due on Monday, Jan. 11 on LaunchPadPortal will cover the prediscussion
assignment for week 2.
In week 2, your discussion will focus on interpreting biological studies and data. These
Week 3 or 4: Genetics & Human Health Jan. 19, 20 & 25 (no discussion 1/18, 1/26, 1/27)
Please note that due to the observance of Martin Luther King Day, there will be no BIO171 discussion on
Jan. 18. There will be discussion on Jan. 19 & 20 & 25. There wi