Cambridge International AS and A Level
For examination in June and November 2016, 2017 and 2018.
Also available for examination in March 2016, 2017 and 2018
for India only.
What has changed in Cambridge
Sub-atomic Relative Relative
E = hf Energy = Plancks constant x frequency
Atomic number Proton number
Mass number Proton number plus the number of neutrons in the
nucleus of its atom
Dipole-Dipole forces(permanently polar molecules) + and parts of the molecules attract electrostatically giving Bts higher than
those of non polar molecules of similar size.
Dispersion/Van der waals forces(non polar molecules)Temporary dipoles for
Thermodynamics Study of conversion of energy between heat and other forms
Thermochemistry Relationship between chemical reactions and heat changes
Enthalpy H Measure of energy(heat content) Change Final value minus the initial value
Enthalpy change H kJmo
The sub-atomic particles
Protons, neutrons and electrons.
Protons and neutrons don't in fact have exactlythe same mass neither of them has a mass of exactly 1 on the carbon-12 scale
Going over basics:
Enthalpy symbol H, is stored energy, its not possible to measure enthalpy but enthalpy changes (, by measuring temperature
changes of reactions at constant pressure. Pronounced delta means change of
Enthalpy change, is the measure of th
1 Clean end of platinum/nichrome wire with(conc)HCl, burning off impurities in a roaring bunsen flame until theres no persistent flame colouration
2 Moisten the end of the clean wire with (conc)HCl and then dip into the sample to be tested
Unit 4.3 Chemical equilibria II
define the terms partial pressure and concentration
Partial pressure (p) Pressure gas would generate if it alone occupied the volume
Concentration Number of moles in a given volume
Homogenous equilibria All reactants and pr
SHAPES OF MOLECULES AND IONS
The electron pair repulsion theory
The shape of a molecule or ion is governed by the arrangement of the electron pairs around the central
atom. All you need to do is to work out how many electron pairs there are at the bonding
Electrons are transferred from one atom to another resulting in the formation of positive
and negative ions.
The electrostatic attractions between the positive and negative ions hold the compound
Noble gases (apart from helium) hav
for Cruzeiro. Aged 16, he made his professional debut on 25
at Inter was a phenomenon." Inter had high hopes going into
the 19992000 season with their attack including Ronaldo and
Italian stars Roberto Baggio andChristian Vieri. Howe
"Ronaldo did things nobody had seen before. He, together
withRomrio and George Weah, reinvented the centre-forward
position. They were the first to drop from the penalty box to pick
up the ball in midfield, switch to the flanks, attract and disorientate
before the tour
Ronaldo during a 2005 meeting at the Brazilian Ministry of
During 1997, Ronaldo met the Brazilian model and
actress Susana Werner on the set of
Brazilian telenovela Malhao when they acted together in three
1. DellaPergola 2013, p. 50.
2. ^ Mallimaci, Esquivel & Irrazbal 2008,
3. ^ Mallimaci, Esquivel & Irrazbal 2008,
4. ^ Donadio, Rachel (13 March
2013). "Cardinals Pick Bergoglio, Who
Will Be Pope Francis". The New York
Times. New York, NY,
1. ^ Se cumplieron 100 aos del primer
viaje en subte - nv
2. 1999.Archived from the original on 13
3. ^ "Penetracin TV paga en hogares 2014
Argentina" (in Spanish). Coral Gables,
FL, USA: LAMAC Latin American
Multichannel Advertising Counc
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acompaados de los documentos en su
apoyo. Desde el ao 1808 hasta el
Fearns, Les; Fearns, Daisy
(2005). Argentina. London: Evans
Ferro, Carlos A. (1991). Historia de la
Bandera Argentina (in Spanish). Buenos
as a member of the "Best foreign eleven in Real Madrid's history".
20072008: A.C. Milan
"I wasn't able to see Pel play, but I've seen Ronaldo, and I've
never seen a player like him. He's unique, number one in
A.C. Milan and Brazil teamma
officials stated that given the extraordinary career of Ronaldo, it
was only fitting that his final game should take place in Brazil
while representing his nation.
Ronaldo played for 15 minutes in a match that ended with a
Brazilian victory with a goa
In one on one situations, Ronaldo would often use
elaborate feints to trick and beat defenders and goalkeepers; he
most notably popularised the use of many football tricks
and skills, such as the elastico, the step over, the nutmeg, among
2. ^ "Exchanges in Argentina Move Toward
Greater Integration". The Wall Street
Journal. New York, NY, USA. 3 April
2013. Archivedfrom the original on 7
3. ^ Devereux, Charlie (18 September
2015). "Argentina's Economy Expanded
2.3% in Second
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Spanish). Bogot: Embajada de la
Repblica Argentina en la Repblica de
Colombia. 2013. Archived from the
original on 29 September 2013.
4. ^ Ley No. 26870 Declrase al Vino
"Ronaldos impact on the game 15 years ago was immense, and
in the run up to 2014, we wanted to celebrate that boot and the
man himself. We thought a modern construction of his 1998 boot
would be a great commemoration of that moment."
Ronaldo has appe
ade him the player every child in the playground wanted to be; at
the age of 21, the hopes and dreams of a nation rested on his
shoulders." He scored four goals and made three assists en
route to the final. Hours before the final he suffered a convuls
2. . Index Mundi SIPRI Stockholm
International Peace Research Institute,
Yearbook: Armaments, Disarmament and
2011.Archived from the original on 6
3. ^ Decreto No. 18711 Fuerzas de
Seguridad, 23 June 1970, B.O.,
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Akstinat, Bjrn (2013). Handbuch der
deutschsprachigen Presse im Ausland (in
German). Berlin: IMHVerlag. ISBN 9783981515817.
Arbena, Joseph (2002). "In Search of the
Latin American Female Athle
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19 September 2009.
2. original on 7 December 2013.
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second default". Argentina News.Net.
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5. ^ Brittl