Three basic types of bonds:
Electrostatic attraction between ions
Covalent, Sharing of electrons, Metallic
Metal atoms bonded to several other atoms
Lattice energy, then, increases with the charge on the ions.
Although atoms often form compounds by
Concentration of Reactants
As the concentration of reactants increases, so does the likelihood that
reactant molecules will collide.
At higher temperatures, reactant molecules have more kinetic energy,
move faster, and collide more of
The ability to do work or transfer heat.
Work: Energy used to cause an object that has mass to move.
Heat: Energy used to cause the temperature of an object to rise.
Energy an object possesses by virtue of its position or chemical
Upon addition of reactants and/or products, they react until a constant
amount of reactants and products are present = equilibrium.
Equilibrium is dynamic since product is constantly made (forward reaction),
but at the same rate it is consumed (reverse re
Energy the ability to do work
Potential energy- stored energy (in bonds)
ex.- ATP (remove a phosphate to release energy), a roller coaster on top of a hill
Kinetic energy- energy of motion
Types of energy
Chemical- stored in bonds
The periodic table is arranged in rows according to increasing atomic
Physical and chemical properties of the elements can be explained by
electron configurations or positions in the periodic table.
Recall that the periodic table is organized in b
Chemistry - The study of matter
Matter - Anything that has mass and occupies space
A piece paper
Energy - the ability to do work to accomplish some change
Biochemistry - the study of life at the molecular level
Organic chemistry - the study of mat
elements combine together to make an almost limitless number of
the properties of the compound are totally different from the constituent
compounds are made of atoms held together by chemical bonds
bonds are forces of attraction between
What is a chemical reaction?
A chemical reaction: is a process in which one set of substances called
reactants is converted to a new set of substances called products.
Some physical evidence to look for that shows a reaction has occurred:
a color change
The shape of a molecule plays an important role in its reactivity.
By knowing the number of bonding and nonbonding electron pairs, can
easily predict the shape of the molecule.
electron pairs, whether they be bonding or nonbonding, repel each other.