imaginary line from 100 to 28. Relaxation accompanied certainty.
A 114. Organic sensations from breathing;strain in the forehead and
eyes. (Uncertainty.) A no. Feeling of certainty. . . I breathed
more easily; the strain in the eyes is gone.
(4) A 123. I
the ether is discussed. P 3ab. On reading first statement there were
in eonscionsness only the verbal images of the words and a vague uvailsschema.
There were the same in the second and, besides, a erencferto
Marbe's work on judgment. I think that this re
reported. (3) The work is usually done in visual terms.
(i) A 116. A host of organic sensations; pressure on the chest
especially. . .
The feeling of certainty was distinct: I felt strong
and sat up straight. A 120. Many organic sensations in chest, arms
instances of Kundgabe as opposed to psychological Beschreibung.
Neither CI nor P had had the general introspective practice of the
previous observers, and the present experiments were, as we have
said, too few to ^ivepositiveresults. Nevertheless, /*,who
and inaccessible. The distance between it and myself seemed to offer
an insuperable barrier, like the distance to the stars. With the first,
though it was definite and near, there was a sort of background of
doubt, a cloudy something that seemed to lead o
AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF BEWEF 577
beginning of the experiment,by a blank sheet. The observer
was then instructed, either to read the problem, to look at the
answer, and to verify its correctness by mental computation;
or to read the problem, to solve it
few pointsof interest in the introspectivereports.
The observers are of radicallydi"Ferent types. Q is pronotmcedly
visual,even more so than C (the observers, though
of the same name, are not related). The understanding of the
sentences consisted in the a
the belief and disbeUef consciousnesses. The reg^ar observers
were Vy C and F; a few observations were also made by G,
With this observer we made 246 successful tests. We need
not again illustrate V*s tendency to empathic kinsesthesis.
held my breath. . . Pelt sense of power, sat up straight. (bDeilis-ef.)
P 14b. Clear, intense belief. Sat up, smiled, felt strong.
P loa. This certainty of beinff right is carried by organic sensations
of power. I sat up, smiled, oreathed deep, puffed my
were stillnot a marked or uniform feature of consciousness.
1 Of, TItchener: Thona^ht-processes, 1909, 389 f.
(4) AfiFectiveprocesses were neither frequent nor intensive;
belief was pleasant,disbelief pleasantor unpleasant.
(i) Pi4b. fBelief wit
and drew back. P 14a. Shook head. General muscular contraction;
kinaesthetic imaee of stamping foot.
The 'feelingof power,' in its intense forms, is characterised as a
feelingof aggressiveness* C 29b. Pelt aggressive and rather angry
. . . Pelt actively o
ethics and philosophy. F r4b. I said Yes, with a sort of muscular set
all over my trunk, especially along my sides. P 24b. As soon as I
had finished reading I said: I don*t know " I suppose so. Between
the two there was a general emotional mood with a bod
as if from muscular strain. I don't know what muscular strain
With this observer we made 187 successful tests. The asinaslyof
belief -disbelief was simple and straightforward: the cscoin-ousness
consisted (i) of verbal ideas,or (2) o
and this was what made it clear. Got visual image of philosophy
class;this seemed to mean 'If religionis properly interpreted,it need
not conflict with science at all.' P 7a. The clear element Is what I
call the logical element; I know why I disbelieve. T
is; for instance, Meek suggests Strong, and I prefer Strong to Meek.
Once the conflict is given in affective terms. A 84. There seemed to
be a quick change from slight unpleasantness (going with the meaninglessness
of the statement) to slightpleasantness
the assent or belief seemed to come as agreement of this
schema with that of previously accepted opinions. D 7a. Visual
image of two parallellines,at first in some large,vaguely seen plane
in space, then on a page of the geometry I used to study. Visnal
(2) G 32a. Certainty . . . Relaxation of muscles; sat back. G 34a.
Dissatisfaction and unpleasantness; restlessness, and general muscular
"train. G 41a. Tension of muscles. (Uncertainty.) G 41b. Pieneglof
relaxation. G 43b. Strain in hands and upper part
innervation of the tongue, and sometimes larynx, to pronounce the
first sound of each word. G 5b. Nodded to it and said Yes to it. G 7a.
Verbal ideas: No, Bismarck is greater, Gladstone is greater; don't
believe it. Only partly articulated; I wanted to wh
the affective processes may be moderately strong;
the affective reaction is very variable, but normaUy belief
tends to pleasantness,disbelief to unpleasantness. The core
of the consciousness consists in the verbal ideas Yes and No,
or their equivalents,an
in 1898, "Human Immortality" in 1899, "The
Varieties of Religious Experience" in 1902, "Pragmatism"
in 1907, "A Pluralistic Universe" in 1908, and "The Mienagnof
Truth" in 1909. His honors, following on his works,
came likewise late, but included degrees
disturbed,such, for instance,as are to be found in dfeifr-ent
forms of amnesia and aphasia.
The second method is by far the more important
of the two, and is extremelyvaluable. For it is only by
disturbances in the function of thought that we can
science is not from the normal to the abnormal, but the
very reverse, from the abnormal to the normal; the
normal is but an arbitrarytemporary concept, modified,
and determined by the abnormal or unusual.
The supreme importance of pathologicalresearch
all eternity,in a regionoutside and totallyindependent
of the brain. Thus the hypothesisby its very character,
even if the matter be regarded from a purely logical
standpointundermines the propositionwhich it tunodoekrto
explain,and as such can hardlybe c
then all experienceis immediate, otherwise it cannot be
experience.A mediate experienceas contrasted with imem-diate
experiencecan only mean experienceinferred,
experiencenot experienced,a concept contradictoryin its
very nature and definition,and must be
stronglyto confirm the theory that all functional deais-es
are disassociations of functioningbrain ctelmls,-sysand
that the gravityof the disease depends on the
extension of such functional dissociations. Thus we
find that neuro-pathologyand the recent sc
versa, every physiological process may
psychic accompaniment. This hypothesis of phsycshico-al
parallelism is at the basis of all modern phsycshio-logical,
neurological, and psycho-pathological iven-stigations,
inasmuch as it is taken for granted
or unconscious, and ends with an adjustment. The
psychic process begins as a sensation, and its complete
Deductive Basis of PsychologicalHypothesis 83
cycleruns its course as an idea and then ends in a tviolointo
act. The stimulus marking the beginning
cannot call on our ideas to come at our bidding. They
come and go unasked.
Mental activityin its rational aspects whether it be
logical,moral, or aesthetic,is essentiallyselective in
character. The logicalprocess can draw only definite
conclusions from gi
"I had eye-movements toward place on page where
stimulus- word is found," or: "on my lipsdefinitelythe word
'sesame' (stimulus was "open"), was inhibited, then word
"door" with reference to China, looking sideways to left,
like stud3dng map of whole world
the sensory stimulations of the honey release the appr-opriate
reaction of flyingtowards it.
The brightcolors of flowers developedin the course
of natural selection for the fertilization of plantsserve
the same purpose; they awaken definite responses fusu