3:3 I Via Ggc
Clayton College and State University
CRIT1101, Spring, 2017.
Instructor: Michael Hollield
Homework on fallacies of relevance and weak induction.
Simply write your answers under the question or innumerate them in a separate list.
Use your boo
Crime and Violence is considered the biggest factor contributing to Jamaicas increasing
death rate. Examples of criminal activities include violent and weapon crimes, domestic
crimes, property crimes or white-collar crimes. The Gleaner (2013)
1.1 Arguments, Premises, and Conclusions
1. P: Carbon monoxide molecules happen to be just the right size and shape and happen to have just
the right chemical properties, to fit neatly into cavities within hemoglobin molecules in blood
that are normally r
1) Nonargrument; Explanations
2) Nonargument; Conditional statement
3) Argument; Conclusion: Freedom of the press is the most important of our constitutionally guaranteed
4) Nonargument; Illustration
5) Nonargurment; Piece of Advice
Argument: a group of statements
Inferential Relationship: relationship between premise & conclusion
Statement: a sentence that is either true or false, sentence with a truth value T/F
Types of Statements: Premise, Conclusion
Premise indicator: transition
Dr. Todd Janke
Issue: Whether soccer is a more popular sport than football.
Position: Soccer is a more popular sport than football.
Premise 1: Soccer is easy to recreate cheaply throughout the world, while
Issue: Whether Chic Fil A should start serving breakfast all day.
Position: Chic Fil A should start serving breakfast all day.
Premise 1: It would increase customer satisfaction.
Premise 2: It would allow Chic Fil A to be more competitive.
Issue: Whether freshman students staying on campus should be required to pay for a meal plan at
Clayton State University.
Position: Freshman staying on campus should not be required to pay for a meal plan.
Premise 1: The meal plan is excess
REDUCTIONISM: Reducing from a higher order truth to a lower level truth such as reducing
from Genus to Species. Reductionism can be an attempt to identify a point of origin or source
variable as in making an etiological determination. It can be considered
TRUTH AND THE CRITICAL TH-INKER
truth: 1) the true or actual state
2) conforming with fact or reality
3) verified or undisputable
4) what is actual
Critical thinking is thinking with deliberate awareness of the thinking process to enhance its
TRUTH PARADIGM COMPONENTS: After all is said and done, Critical Thinking is intended to
empower us in our pursuit of truth or validity in a world where determining who or what to
believe is an ongoing challenge. Consider the following components as you fo
THE ENABLING SKILLS FOR CRITICAL THINKING
The enabling skills for critical thinking are used by critical thinkers to develop objective,
empirical, fact based, Informed Opinions. Just as skills in multiplying, dividing, adding,
and subtracting are used to
THE CRITICAL THINKING PROCESS
What do you want to do?
How are you going to do it (step by step)?
What info are you going to use?
How reliable is your evidence?
Is your reliable evidence relevant?
Is there enough rel
CHANGING YOUR TRUTHS CHANGES YOUR BEHAVIOR
FOUR BASICS QUESTIONS.
NUMBER 1 . What are your truths?
NUMBER 2 . Where did they come from? [OPTIONAL]
NUMBER 3 . How are your truths working for you?
NUMBER 4 . Are you willing to replace a truth that is not wo
EXPANSIONISM: Logically moving from a base or lower order truth to a higher level truth. The
reverse of reductionism. Using Systems Thinkingconsider the following abstract thinking
First, as a human being you are a system of systems. We study ma
PARADIGM: A SET OF TRUTHS OR THOUGHTS/IDEAS RELATING TO A SPECIFIC CONCEPT. A PARADIGM
REPRESENTS YOUR UNDERSTANDING OF A CONCEPT. REFERS TO A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OR
PARADIGM SHIFT: A CHANGE IN A PARADIGM AS A RESULT OF THE ASSIMILATION OR INTEG
Consider the ENABLING SKILL of ANALYSIS. When we divide a whole into its constituent parts
we are analyzing. If we apply the enabling skill of analysis to this Logic/CT course, we can
identify three major areas of content. One of the three, FALLACIES is f
ABSOLUTE vs RELATIVE THINKING:
Consider Demographic Data aka Demographics. Demographics refer to states of being. Some
are absolute or never changing and some are relative or changing[at least potentially].
Claims, Arguments, Subjectivism, and
Claim: Any statement of fact, belief,
Examples: Its raining in Montreal right now.
You should major in agriculture.
Fabio is a robust stallion of a man.
Argument: A set of statements
1. Introduce the components of philosophical arguments
2. Introduce the concept of formal validity
3. Introduce the concept of formal soundness
2 fundamental components:
* The premises of an argumen
A neutral or positive
expression used instead of one that carries
-The government faces resistance from
an organized group of freedom
A negative expression used
instead of one that
Distinguishing Valid and Invalid Deductive
The following method cant be used to evaluate every deductive argument,
but it can be used to evaluate many of them.
Lets start by noticing that there are four very common argument forms that
we tend to
Effective arguments require clarity.
Dont be profound. Be clear.
What happens to the persuasive power of our arguments
when we dont pay attention to the clarity of our
"Natural gas is hemispheric. I like to call it
hemispheric in nature becaus
Purpose of argument: Tries to show that the Tries to show that the
How we evaluate:
-Valid or invalid
-Sound or unsound
-Strong or weak
What it means:
CHAPTER 6: MORE PSEUDOREASONING OR FALLACIES
In all ad hominem fallacies we attack the speaker rather than the claim.
We commit the fallacy of PERSONAL ATTACK AD HOMINEM when
we try to discredit a claim by personally attacking t
Consider the following argument:
Those four officers who killed the innocent man in
New York by mistake should be found not guilty of
any crime. None of them had ever been in any kind
of trouble before, and, tragically, this kind of thing is