Gen Bio Notes Genetics Part 5: Environmental Influences
It is important to know that the genetic makeup of an organism at
fertilization determines only the organism s potential to develop and
function. Many factors can influence how the gene is expressed,
1. 3disorderscausedbymutatedproteinshapesareSickleCellAnemia,PKU,andCysticFibrosis .Describe
Day 8: 7.7
LS 17a) Which has the larger atomic radius?
LS 17b) Which has the larger ion radius?
LS 17c) Which has the most negative electron affinity?
LS 17d) Which has the most negative electron affinity?
Lec Sup # 14b
Write the electron configuration for Cu+
Lec Sup # 14c
Write the electron configuration for Cu2+
Be sure to look at sample integrative exercise 6 on page
Lec Sup # 8
Write the electron configuration for S
Write the electron configuration for W
Lec Sup # 9
Write the electron configuration for Fe
Lec Sup # 10
Write the el
The Electron affinity of an atom is the energy change when an electron is added
to the neutral atom to form a negative ion. This property can only be measured
in an atom in gaseous state.
Electron Affinity Trends
Period Trend: becomes in
3. Magnetic quantum number (ml)
Can have values between
l and l, including zero.
Ex: if l = 1 then ml = -1,0,+1
This quantum number expresses orientation in space of the orbital.
4. Electron spin
Electrons spin on their own axis.
Fourth quantum number is
Period Trend: decreases Left to Right
There is no increase* in shielding electrons within a period.
However, the nucleus becomes more + with added protons and thus has a
stronger electrostatic force of attraction to the valence shell.
Electron shell / Energy Level:
a collection of orbitals with the same value of n.
All orbitals with n=4 are in the 4th shell.
2) Azimuthal quantum number (l)
Second quantum number
Values from 0 to n-1
This value defines the shape of the orbital.
Day 1: 6.1 6.2
Wave Nature of Light
All light, including visible light is a form of electromagnetic radiation.
Electromagnetic radiation carries radiant energy through space.
All EM radiation carries energy through
State at which the electron
has been removed from the atom.
Zero-energy state is higher in energy than the states with negative energies.
Bohrs next big assumption was that when electrons jumped from one allowed state to
the next they di
2. What is the energy of the radio wave associated with 95.5 MHz
6.33 X 10^-26 J/quantum
2.08 X 10^-33 J/quantum
6.04 X 10^-7 J/quantum
3. Laser used for eye surgery has a frequency of 4.69 x 1014s-1. What is the
6.40 X 10^
Braggs diffraction of x-rays shows they show properties of waves.
Light is a Particle
Einsteins explanation of the photoelectric effect shows quantized energy of light.
Compton effect shows that EM waves have the property of momentum (so did
Day 2: 6.3 -6.4
In 1905 Einstein used
Plancks theory to
A spectrum containing radiation of only specific wavelengths.
Emission Spectra vs Absorption Spectra
Line spectrum of hyd
Grahams Law of Effusion
Effusion rate of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its molar mass.
The rate of effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the time for the gas to effuse
through a barrier.
Lec Sup #15 aka lab!
Find the molar mass of a gas where the volume of the flask used to collect the gas is
250. ml, the mass of the condensed liquid is 1.30 g, the pressure of the atmosphere is
1.01 atm, and the temperature of the room is 25.0 degrees cel
Pa is pressure of gas a (na is moles)
Pt is total pressure (nt is total moles)
Each gas in a mixture behaves independently from the others*.
Total pressure at a constant T and V is determined by the total number of moles
LS16)A sample of KClO3 is
Effusion and Diffusion
Average KE of any collection of gas molecules = mu2, at a given Temperature.
Lighter particles and heavier particles will have the same average KE.
Lighter particles have higher rms.
Distribution of molecular speed for N2 At 0C and
Deviations from ideal behavior
High Pressure causes deviation from ideal behavior.
Temperature also affects ideal behavior.
As temperature increases, properties of gases approach ideal behavior.
Ideal gas molecules are assumed to occupy no space and have
Input numeric answer
LS #12: If 2.5 grams of zinc are allowed to react with excess hydrochloric acid, how
many Liters of hydrogen gas will be generated? The room temperature is 24.0 degrees
Celsius and the atmospheric pressure is 99.8 kPa?