space between the outer and inner (cytoplasmic) membranes - gram positive lack a well defined
periplasm. Contains numerous proteins of hydrolytic enzymes, which break down food, binding
proteins, which bind molecules and transport them to the in
Multiple Choice: Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the
question. Each question is worth 5.357 points.
1. The process of importing free DNA into cells is known as_
In the latter part of the 19th century there were two pressing questions that were foremost in
1. Does spontaneous generation occur?
2. What is the nature of contagious disease?
Pasteur and spontaneous generation
Observations: meat left out
1664 Robert Hooke observed small, well organized units in cork material. These became known
as cells which are the fundamental unit of life - analogous to the atom in chemistry.
What are the hallmarks of a cell?
Self feeding or nutrition
Cells are always in gradients and need to be able to respond to gradients either positively or
negatively by moving into or away from signal molecules respectively.
chemotaxis - bacterial response to a chemical gradient. Bacteria sense the
What is microbiology?
Study of diverse group of organisms that exist as either single cells or clusters of cells. Also
include viruses, which are microscopic but not cellular - they do not carry out energy
transformations for example.
What is microbiology
Today we want to begin to exam some of the structure and function relationships in prokaryotic
cells. Remember that cells are essentially well organized assemblages of macromolecules with
many common features shared among diverse types of cells.
Membrane transport proteins
Protein allows or moves molecules across the membrane down the molecules concentration
gradient - a source of potential energy. Still requires a protein. Some proteins
Specimen preparation in most situations the specimen is heat fixed to the slide before all staining procedures. This is
to bind the cells to the slide so that they will not be subsequently washed off in the staining
Dyes are ionic chromophores
Bacteria are about 12% nitrogen by weight. Nitrogen found in amino acids, nucleotides,
and other cell constituents.
Nitrogen in organic and inorganic forms. Example of organic is amino acids or
nucleotides. Examples of inorganic form are NH 4 or
Mid-Term Exam-1, June 20, 2013
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Each question is worth 6.25points
_c_ 1.The first genomes to be sequenced were those of: