Classification of bacteria based on temperature optimum
psychrophiles - low temperature optima <15 C - may even be killed by brief warming or
mesophiles - midrange temperature optima 25 - 40 C
thermophiles - high temperature optima 45 - 80 C
Free energy of formation or Gof
Using the free energies of formation, you can calculated [Delta]G o' which is equal to
the products minus the reactants after balancing the equation.
Micoorganisms need energy to assemble and put macromolecules into order.
Electron transport chain is set up to separate electrons from protons. For example the hydrogen
atoms from NADH are separated into electrons and protons by the electron transport chain. The
electrons are moved down the electron transport chain and the pro
6 molecules of ribulose bisphosphate accepts 6 molecules of CO2 for a total of36 carbons among 12 3carbon molecules (phosphoglyceric acid). These 12 molecules are than rearranged to make 6 5carbon molecules (ribulose bisphosphate) and 1 6-carbon (h
Batch culture of bacteria
Culturing bacteria in a Erlenmeyer flask where you simply inoculate it and let the bacteria grow.
There are 4 phases of growth in batch culture.
Lag phase - A newly inoculated culture usually does not begin growing immediately bu
Divide glycolysis into three stages. Specific enzymes carry out each reaction.
Enzymes are proteins composed of amino acids. Going back to our water example.
[Delta]Go' is a negative number meaning that the reaction is exergonicand
occurs spontaneously. B
Sugars - (See figure 4.26) Key intermediates are glucose 6 phosphate, from glycolysis, and
Hexoses synthesized by gluconeogenesis - by reversing glycolysis from phosphoenol pyruvate
from glycolysis. PEP can come from the decarbox
Electron flow ( Figure 13.10) - Light harvesting antennae bacteriochlorophyll a molecules funnel
their energy to the reaction center bacteriochlorophyll a molecules - the special pair. The special
pair becomes excited and is converted to a good electron d
Neat phenomenon - large deposits of ferric iron have been found in ancient sediments
which were originally thought to be the result of abiotic oxidation of ferrous iron where
the oxygen came from oxygenic photosynthesis. Perhaps these deposits were formed
Major nutritional types of prokaryotes
Cyanobacteria, purple non-
Microbial Growth Control
Talk about various methods to control the growth of bacteria, e.g., on food to prevent spoilage.
Begin with physical methods to control growth and then look at chemical methods.
Heat Sterilization - Two important parameters: How l