Antibodies against specific microorganisms can be used for the identification of many
microorganisms. Slide agglutination are used to rapidly identify potential pathogens
using antiserum made against the pathogen. Positive identification is indicated by a
F-plasmid is an episome - a plasmid that can occur independent of the chromosome or
integrated in the chromosome.
F+ cells are cells with the F plasmid unintegrated.
F- cells are without the F plasmid and make good recipients and are referred to
Enzyme repression - an endproduct of a pathway represses the synthesis of the enzymes.
Found in the biosynthesis of amino acids and nucleotides. The substance that represses
transcription is called a corepressor. The corepessor binds to a repressor protei
Genetics is defined as the mechanism by which traits are passed on from one organism
to another and how they are expressed.
How does information flow? Central dogma of molecular biology
Replication - to ensure that following generations acquire genetic ma
Features of the promoter sequence of DNA - Two highly conserved sequences in the
promoter sequence of many different genes. -10 region or the Pribnow box has a
sequence of TATAAT and the -35 region has the sequence TTGACA. Again these
sequences are highly
Antibiotics - protein synthesis is a great target for antibiotics to control growth of the
bacteria. Specifically, antibiotics that interact with the ribosomes are medically useful.
Streptomycin inhibits initiation, puromycin, chloramphenicol, cycloheximi
Genetic elements includes chromosome and other elements.
Chromosome - single circular double stranded helix that codes for indispensable
functions - so called house keeping genes
Plasmid - small cirular double stranded helix. Code for important properties
Generalized transduction - random segments of the host bacterium's genome becomes
part of the viruses genome. How? During the lytic cycle parts of the host bacterium's
genome are accidentally packaged into the virus particle producing a transducing
Microorganisms are classified into taxa (taxonomic categories) to facilitate research, scholarship
and communication. Biologists try to look for a natural classification system which are based on
ancestral relationships. The hierarchy of the taxa reveals
Bacteria of the same species are not genetically homogeneous - there is
immense genetic diversity. In some cases more diversity than what is found between
man and other mammals. Bacteria are good organisms to
studymolecular evolution and genetics.
Microdeletion and Microinsertions
Both of these lead to frameshift mutations potentially. This could lead to a faulty protein
depending on what region of the protein is effected.
Remember point mutations and micro deletions and insertions only affect the