Cell walls frequently composed of cellulose fibrils - What is cellulose? which is modified by the addition of
other polysaccharides such as pectin, xylans, alginic acids orfucinic acids. Sometimes chitin is
present. What is chitin? a polymer of N-acetyl-g
Cyanobacteria - that are photosynthetic too but they differ because they are oxygenic and
have chlorophyll like higher plants.Also, they have two photosystems like higher plants whereas
what we are talking about only have one photosystem.
Single-stranded filamentous DNA bacteriophages - have a helical symmetry rather than
icosahedral. M13 is a well studied ss DNA virus that infects onlymale Escherichia coli cells after
attachment of the male-specific pilus. Unlikethe previously described v
Commercial - bakers and brewers yeast - Saccharomyces are very important to the food industry.
They are genetically modified through selection for improved activities.
Mushrooms - filamentous fungi that typically form an aerial fruiting body - the mushroo
Includes Amoeba which are naked in the vegetative stage and foraminifera, which form
carbonate shells in the vegetative state. Many of the sarcodina are parasitic for
example Entamoeba histolytica which may cause no symptoms in some people or pr
Widely distributed in terrestrial and aquatic systems. Found in the strangest places like in deserts
as mats that dry up and revive when the short rains come. On the sides of granite buildings and
tombstones. As symbionts with liverworts, ferns an
Virus infection unit is the smallest unit that causes an effect on the host cell. How do virologists
measure virus infection units?
Plaque assay is a way to measure virus infection units. A monolayer of host cells are plated out
on appropriate medium and
Oxidization of hydrogen by Hydrogen oxidizing bacteria may not be too important since there is
immense competition for hydrogen in the anoxic zone where hydrogen is formed by the
fermentative organisms. This may explain why they are facultative chemolitho
aerobic or facultative aerobic, catalase positive, superoxide dismutase positive. Found in soils
where the spore is advantageous. Resistant to drying and heat and allows the organisms to
survive famines. It germinates to quickly to take advantage
- there are an estimated 1000 - 10,000 different species of bacteria in a gram of soil.
What is a gram?
About the size of a sugar cube. There are probably more species of bacteria than bugs which
used to be considered the most diverse