Exam 2 Study Guide
Lesson 4, Section 1: Comparative Anatomy and Digestive Physiology
Digestion= the preparation of food for absorption. It is over when nutrients from the
feed are in an absorbable form. There are 3 different mechanisms/methods of digesti
Exam 3 Study Guide
Lesson 7, Section 1: Carbohydrates
Carbs are the backbone of animal and human diets
Chemical definition: carbs are polyhydoxaldehydes or ketones, or substances that yield
them on hydrolysis. They contain only 3 chemical elements: C, H,
Exam 4 Study Guide
Lesson 9: Proteins and Amino Acids
Proteins are made up (by % molecular weight) of: (study question)
o C: 53%
o H: 7%
o O: 23%
o N: 16%
o S & P: <1%
Protein is the principal dry matter constituent of the body organs
Protein or its build
ANSI Exam 5 Study Guide
Lessons 11 & 12: Minerals
The minerals constitute a group of inorganic elements needed by livestock for
production and maintenance
o Since minerals are inorganic they cant be synthesized by either animals or
microorganisms. If a p
Exam 1 Study Guide
Nutrition= the study of the processes where feed nutrients are presented to and utilized
by living cells for productive purposes
Why study nutrition? (study question)
o Must eat to live, must eat well to live well and long
1. Explain why ruminants, cecal fermenters, and monogastrics have such different abilities
for digesting forages.
Ruminants have more than one stomach compartment and undergo both fermentation and
other types of digestion. Monogastrics only have one stoma
1. What is the point of feedstuffs analysis?
Feedstuffs analysis provides insight into the feeds nutritive significance to livestock.
This includes evaluating productive value, digestibility, nutrient composition,
palatability, and physical or handling ch
1. Define nutrition in your own words.
Nutrition is the study of the mechanisms by which nutrients obtained from an
organisms diet are obtained and used by biological cells in order to produce
materials for the use of the organism.
2. How do plants provid
1. Compare and contrast the definition of ration with that of diet.
Ration can be defined as a daily distribution of feed, whereas diet can be defined
as the mix of feedstuffs which provides animals with nutrition. In other words, the
ration is the amount
1. Explain the problem of getting an accurate weight on animals in a growth trial. Why is it
a problem, in which animals is this the biggest problem, and how do we correct it?
Getting an accurate weight on an animal is difficult because live body weight i
Morgan Frey ANSI 3543E Assignment #10
Describe the relative strengths and weaknesses of DE, TDN, ME, and NE.
Strength TDN is used to measure energy in units of weight or percent. It
accounts for digestible protein, carbohydrates, and crude
Morgan Frey ANSI 3543E Assignment #12
1. What does minerals constitute as and how do animals retrieve the minerals they need?
What are the pros and cons of minerals? Do you need more macrominerals than
microminerals? List the general functions of minerals
Morgan Frey ANSI 3543E Assignment #11
1. How much calcium is stored in the animal body and where is it mainly stored along with
P ratio (important for next part of question)? To understand the relationship of calcium
to bone function and metabolism briefl
Morgan Frey ANSI 3543E Assignment #9
How does an amino acid differ chemically from a simple carbohydrate like glucose? In their
purpose to the body?
The chemical difference between an amino acid and a simple carbohydrate is the
number in the carboxyl grou
Morgan Frey ANSI 3543E Assignment #8
Explain the significance of glycerol to the structure of a triglyceride.
Glycerol is the alcohol component of all triglycerides that is common in both animals and
plants. Triglycerides are esters of glycerol and fatty
Morgan Frey ANSI 3543E Assignment #7
1. Explain why there is very little carbohydrate found in the body of a living animal.
Animals are known to only have a few carbohydrates and they account for less than 1%
of their body. That is a relative small percen
Study Questions Chapter 6
1) Describe the importance of water to life
Life could not be sustained without water. The absence of water could cause death faster than absence
of any other nutrient.
2) What portion of the body mass is water? Mole
Writing Assignment #5
1) Explain the problem of getting an accurate weight on animals in a growth trial. Why is it a
problem, in which animals is the biggest problem, and how do we correct for it?
a. Due to the fact that live body weight includ
Study Questions Chapter 4
1) What are the factors that affect nutrient utilization from a given feedstuff?
Species, age, physiological state, GI tract type, level of consumption, physical form in which the nutrient
is provided (pelleted, gro
Study Questions Chapter 4
1. Define Digestion. What are the three major Methods (mechanisms) of digestion? Describe them.
Digestion is the preparation of food for absorption.
The three major methods of digestion are:
Physical or mechanical whic
Lesson 7 Section 4 Study Questions
Digestion in the Small Intestines
1. Which carbohydrates can be absorbed from the gut?
a. Only monosaccharides, except for newborn animals who can digest larger
2. What carbohydrates can the carbohydrates split
Lesson 8 - Section 1 Study Questions
1. Define lipids.
a. Simple, short chain fatty acids and large complex molecules
b. They are water insoluble
c. Actually, or potentially, fatty acid esters
d. Utilized by living organisms
2. What is the average percent
Lesson 7 Section 2 Study Questions
1. Describe the two types of carbohydrate classification.
a. Number of carbon atoms per molecule of carbohydrate
b. Number of molecules of sugar in the compound
2. What is the empirical formula for simple carbohydrates?
Lesson 8 - Section 2 Study Questions
1. What does increasing the fat content of a ration do for the energy density of the ration?
a. It increases the energy density of the ration
2. In very low-fat rations fat soluble vitamin deficiencies have been known
Lesson 8 - Section 3 Study Questions
1. What is the major enzyme of lipid digestion?
2. Why isnt fat digested in the stomach?
a. While there is lipase in the stomach, the pH of the stomach is lower than the
required pH for lipase to appropriatel
Lesson 7 Section 7 Study Questions
Plant fibers as energy sources
1. What is the form of most of the energy in plants?
2. Can mammals digest cellulose and lignin on their own?
a. No, they cannot. They require microbial populations to assi
Lesson 7 Section 8 Study Questions
1. What are the CHO fractions found in the stem? Why?
a. Fiber large concentrations of structural carbohydrates
b. Monosaccharides small amounts should be found as sugar being transported
from leaves to seed
c. NO STARCH
Lesson 7 Section 5 Study Questions
Abnormal Carbohydrate Metabolism
1. How important is diabetes in domestic animals? Ketosis?
a. There isnt adequate information to quantify the importance of diabetes in
b. Ketosis is a much bigger probl
Lesson 7 Section 1 Study Questions
1. What portion of the dry matter of forages is CHO?
2. What are the chemical elements and their ratios in CHO?
a. Carbon 1
b. Hydrogen 2
c. Oxygen - 1
3. Name some common CHO.
a. Sugars, starch, cellulose, gums,
Lesson 7 Section 3 Study Questions
1. What is the primary function of carbohydrates in animal nutrition?
a. To serve as a source of energy for normal life processes
2. What is starchs job?
a. Energy reserves
3. What do cellulose and hemicellulose do?