Physical Geology 1114
Abraham Ortelius: mapped the world
Continental Drift: An idea before its time
Alfred Wegener: first proposed continental drift hypothesis in 1915
o Published The origin of continents and oceans
Continental Drift Hypothesi
GEOL 1114: Earths Interior
Radius of Interior: 6370km (more than 4000 miles)
Oklahoma: where the reflection seismic technique was born
Density Stratification (chemical differentiation) early
Sea Ice (Ex. Antarctica)
Glaciers are large masses of ice that originate on land
Glaciers are 10% of land surface
Where do you find glaciers? high altitudes and high latitudes
o High latitudes (polar regions, Alaska an
Sediment routing and storage.
Channel bed storage.
Tien Shan Mountains,
Three Rivers Region,
Lithology and structure.
Global topographic difference in elevation
between the continents and the ocean basins.
Continents average elevation is ~1 km.
Ocean basin average depth is ~4 km.
Continental crust (m
MW 1:30 3:20 AM
Earth dynamic surface
Study of the processes shaping the Earth
surface and the landforms and deposits that
The word geomorphology:
geo = Earth.
morphs = form.
MW 1:30 3:20 PM
The entire area drained by a stream and its
tributaries. Also know as watersheds.
Open or closed (internally drained) drainage
Width of the arrows
is proportional to the
size of the source/sink.
at river mouth (20%.)
An example sediment
budget; values are
different for every basin.
'7 I '
Plate Tectonics and the Origin of Magma
TA Help Sessions:
NRC room 008
TA phone # 405-744-7986
Bring these to each class:
Sedimentary Rocks, Processes, and
Sedimentary Rocks rocks that form when
sediments are compressed together and
lithified or precipitated from aqueous
Sedimentary Rock Cycle
Weathering of pre-existing rock
Igneous rocks are rocks that formed when
molten material cools to a solid state.
Origins of Igneous Rocks
Igneous Textures (pg. 105)
All of the mineral grains should
Dating of Rocks, Fossils & Geologic Events
The geologic record is determined using:
Dating of Rocks
Relative Age Dating the process of determining
when something formed or happened in
Mineral Properties, Uses, and Identification
What is a mineral?
Have known chemical compositions
Have definite physical properties
Identification of Minerals
The following are the main properties
Metamorphic Rocks Rocks changed from one form to another by intense
heat, intense pressure, or the action of hot fluids.
Protolith (the original, parent rock) The rock type that underwent the change.
Can be igneou
GEOL: CHAPTER 8
and Earths Interior
Earthquake: shaking or trembling of the
ground caused by the sudden release of
energy, usually as a result of faulting,
which involves the displacement of rocks
GEOL: CHAPTER 6
Weathering, Soil, and
Weathering: the physical breakdown and
chemical alteration of rocks and minerals
at or near the Earths surface.
Parent material: rocks acted on by
Soil: regolith consisting o
GEOL: CHAPTER 5
Volcanoes and Volcanism
Intro to Volcanoes
When considered in the context of Earth
history, volcanism is actually a constructive
Emission of gases from volcanic eruptions
created much of Earth's atmosphere and
GEOL: CHAPTER 4
Igneous Rocks and
Intrusive Igneous Activity
Igneous rocks form from molten rock
(magma or lava) that cools and crystallizes
to form minerals. Forms as:
Intrusive (Plutonic): most magma moves into
the crust and forms plutons.
GEOL: CHAPTER 7
Metamorphic rock: any rock that has been
changed from its original condition by
heat, pressure, and the chemical activity of
Metamorphism: the phenomenon of
changing rocks subjected to
GEOL: CHAPTER 3
Minerals: The Building
Blocks of Rocks
Narrowly defined chemical composition
Characteristic physical properties
Minerals Are Important
GEOL: CHAPTER 1
A Dynamic and Evolving
Earth as a System
System: a combination of related parts that
interact in an organized manner.
Earth is a system of interconnected components
that interact with each other.
GEOL: CHAPTER 2
A Unifying Theory
Why is Plate Tectonics Important?
Plate tectonics affects everyone.
Interactions between plates cause volcanic
eruptions, earthquakes, tsunami and
Because the plates move, global weathe