Civil Liberties refers to the rights of individuals (free speech, religious freedom, protection
against self-incrimination, etc.)
For our purposes, Civil Rights refers to the rights of groups in society, and especially minority
Vague Formal Powers
The Executive Power - The executive power shall be vested in a President of the United States
of America. - A specific power is limited a vague power is unlimited.
The Executive Order A signed presidential directive that has the force
The Jim Crow Era Voting rights was effectively taken away.
Legal and Illegal intimidation Arrest, Beat, Kill to shutdown African American voting in the
south as a means of Illegal intimidation. Voting tax, literacy test as a means of legal intimidation
The Two Presidencies
Presidents more successful in foreign policy than in domestic policy, 1948-1964
Constitutional powers differ
Over 60% success rate in foreign affairs; less than 50% successful in domestic matters
Congress is proactiv
Constitutional Powers of the President - Formal power power listed in the constitution.
Specific formal power power clearly listed in the constitution. Vague Power Power not
clearly listed in the constitution. Informal Power Power not list
Barber and Presidential Personality
Active/Passive How energetic the president was.
Positive/Negative great self-confident, work well with others/ poor self-confident
Four Types of Presidents
Passive-Positive (Taft, Harding)