Chapter 5: What is a Theory and How Do We Test Theories?
A theory is an attempt to explain something or describe the causes of something.
Criminologists theories are drawn on large bodies of information (their experiences and
previous theories and researc
List the THREE major ways that criminologists gather data to test their theories
or explanations of delinquency (list separately and number; it is not necessary to
describe each way). (6)
surveys, field studies, experiments
Why is it important to collect
Chapter 4: Who Is Most Likely to Engage in Delinquency
Is Social Class Related To Delinquency?
Early Studies Based On Arrest Data
Virtually every early study found that lower-class communities had much higher arrest
rats than higher-class communities. On
Soc 220 Delinquency
What do we mean by the invention of juvenile delinquency? (4)
What does it mean to say that juveniles are immature? (5)
List the three major ways in which juvenile court differs from adult court? (
Dr. Robert Agnew
Office Hours: TTH 9:45-11:30
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The course is divided into four sections, with each section being organized around one or more
How much delinquency is there, and is delinquency
The numbers/ key points you should know.
How much delinquency is there?
Is delinquency more common in the US than in foreign countries?
Is delinquency increasing or decreasing?
How do we exp
A researcher places a random sample of juveniles in a rehabilitation program and finds that they commit 50%
fewer delinquent acts in the year after they complete the program. Does this mea
What are the three major methods of gathering or collecting data? (list separately and number) (6)
What method of data collection was used in the reading College Students and Binge drinking?
Researchers evaluating the effectiveness of delinquency control programs should ideally conduct randomized experiments,
where juveniles are randomly assigned to a treatment and a control gr
Applying the Theories
Consider each theory in turn, including the
components of the theory (e.g., major types of
control, the three ways individuals learn to be
1. Why are unattractive individuals somewhat
2. Evaluate the wisd
Who Is Most Likely to Engage in
Delinquency? (focus on social class, race/ethnicity)
Is social class related to delinquency?
Question: Someone states that the typical lower-class
juvenile is more delinquent than the typical middleclass juvenile. Is that a
What is a theory and how do we test theories?
WHAT IS A THEORY?
A theory is an attempt to explain something or describe the
cause of something
Efforts of criminologists to explain delinquency
Draw on their own experiences, creative ab
WHAT IS DILENQUINCY AND HOW DOES IT DIFFER FROM
JUVINILE DILENQUIENTS (JD) ARE VIEWS DIFFERENTLY
THAN ADULT CRIMINALS
if a juvenile breaks the law the public views them as immature/ in need
for guidance and help
Family plays a central role
The family influences:
The juveniles level of and reaction to strain
Whether the juvenile learns to conform or deviate
The control to which the juvenile is subject
The extent to which the juvenile is s
Define soft determinism? (4)
List or describe any TWO of the specific traits that make up low self-control. (4)
List any THREE biological factors (including biological harms) that inc
List any THREE status offenses (list separately and number). (6)
What is the rationale or reason for having status offenses? (3)
Drawing on the text and clas
List or briefly describe the major steps in testing a theory, up to analyze the data you have collected (it is
not necessary to describe the components of this last step). (8)
Chapter 7: Social Learning Theory
Do Individuals Learn to be Delinquent from Others?
Social learning theory says that juveniles learn to engage in delinquency from others.
These others reinforce juveniles for delinquency, teach them beliefs that are
Chapter 8 Control Theory: Do Weak Controls Result in Delinquency?
Control theorists begin with the question why do juveniles conform?
Unlike strain and social learning theorists, control theorists take the existence of
delinquency for granted.
Chapter 9: Labeling Theory: Does the Reaction to Delinquency Lead to Further
Labeling theory focuses on the reaction to delinquency: both the official reaction by the
justice system and the informational reaction by parents, peers, teachers a
All theories contain an independent variable, a dependent variable, and _conditioning
IV, DV, conditioning variable.
What is a conditioning variable? (4)
specify the conditions under which the independent variable is most likely
to cause th
Sociology 220: Juvenile Delinquency
Class Notes 8/31/2012
JD Delinquency and Difference from adult crime
JD refers to violations of the criminal law by minors or juveniles
Most states 18 (minor) 10 states (GA) 17 and 2 states (16)
JD view different than a
Class Notes 9/10/2012
How much delinquency is there, and is delinquency increasing?
The numbers/key points you should know.
- In the class outline under Trends in Delinquency these show the only numbers
you need to memorize and know. 2nd slide.
How much d
Thursday 6 pm
The reaction to delinquency can lead to further delinquency.
Can increase strain since they have trouble achieving their goals, increases their social
learning since they hang with others and have a hard time fi
Class Notes: 9/24/2012
Factors cause delinquency?
Civil rights, feminist, gay guys movement. White males use to be superior. Increase now
in movements, white men struggling have to fight back. Deserve to be on top now
somebody take white country back.
Class Notes: 10/1/2012
Basic idea of Social learning theory you learn to be delinquent from others.
- taught by family, friends, peers in school, mass media and so forth. Social
learning theory says we particularly learn from family and friends but the la
Chapter 13 Individual Traits: What Impact Do Individual Traits Have on
Make sure you read up on the different theories as they are extremely important to
Are Juveniles with Certain Traits More Likely to Engage in Delinquency?
Chapter 1: What is Delinquency and How Does It Differ From Adult Crime?
Juvenile Delinquency refers to violations of the criminal law by minors.
We tend to view juvenile delinquents differently than adult criminals.
- If a juvenile breaks the law, we gene
Chapter 2: How is Delinquency Measured?
Three major ways of measuring the extent of and trends in delinquency official
statistics, self-report data, and victimization data.
Official Statistics Especially Arrest Data From the Police
- official statistics i
Chapter 3: How Much Delinquency Is There and Is Delinquency Increasing?
How Many Juveniles Are Arrested and What Are They Arrested For?
Arrest data vastly underestimates the extent of delinquency because most delinquent acts
do not come to the attention o