The Behavioural Model to abnormality assumes that all maladaptive behaviour is essentially
acquired through one's environment.
Therefore, Psychiatrists practising the beliefs of this model would be to prioritise changing the
CHAPTER 5: MOOD DISORDERS
Depressive Disorders (symptoms include anhedonia, weight loss or
gain, insomnia, psychomotor retardation, lack of interest, fatigue)
Major Depressive Disorder: at least 5 symptoms for at least 2 or
more weeks (37% hereditability)
Treatment for Mood Disorders
* Interpersonal Psychotherapy: focus on feelings and changes that
can be made
* Cognitive Therapy: focus on changing inner negative feelings
o MBCT (mindfulness based cognitive therapy): relapse
CHAPTER 4: EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
Theory and Hypotheses
* Case Study: detailed information about an individuals behavior;
no insight into causal factors (good for formulation of hypotheses)
* Correlational Method: study of the relationship between 2
CHAPTER 3: ASSESSMENT METHODS
Clinical and interviews: interviews ask various questions about the
individuals life and then focuses on responses (insight into social
skills, body language, etc).
* Structured interviews involve a map of questions (standard
Degradation of Neurotransmitters:
COMT (catechol o-methyl transferase) destroys catecholamines. Polymorphisms exist in
humans that have different receptors
MAO (monoamine oxidase) breaks down monoamine AFTER it is taken back up by
oxidizing the monoamine
The Biological Model of Abnormality (the only model not based on psychological
principles) is based on the assumptions that if the brain, neuroanatomy and
related biochemicals are all physical entities and work together to mediate psychological
The Cognitive Model is quite similar to the Behavioural Model but with the main
difference that, instead of teaching the patient to behave differently it teaches the patient
to think differently.
It is hoped that if the patient's feelings and emotions tow
Scientists critical of parapsychology state that its extraordinary claims demand
extraordinary evidence if they are to be taken seriously.
Many analysts of parapsychology hold that the entire body of evidence to date is of poor
Transpersonal psychology developed from earlier schools of psychology
including psychoanalysis, behaviorism, and humanistic psychology.
The discipline attempts to describe and integrate spiritual experience within modern
People have tried to explain and control abnormal behavior for thousands of years.
Historically, there have been three main approaches to abnormal behavior:
the supernatural, biological, and psychological traditions.
In order to understand abnormal psycho
The Greek physician Hippocrates, who is considered to be the father of Western
medicine, played a major role in the biological tradition.
Hippocrates and his associates wrote the Hippocratic Corpus between 450 and 350 BC, in
which they suggested that abno
Abnormal psychology is the branch of psychology that studies unusual patterns
of behavior, emotion and thought, which may or may not be understood as precipitating
a mental disorder.
There is a long history of attempts to understand and control behavior d
The history of pathology can be traced back to antiquity when people began examining bodies.
The examination of bodies led to the dissection of bodies in order to justify the cause of death.
During that time, the people already began
Anatomical pathology (Commonwealth) or anatomic pathology (United States) is a
medical specialty that is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on
the gross, microscopic, chemical, immunologic and molecular examination of organs,
tissues, and whole