[October 11, 2012]
- Learning is a specific modification or change of behavior involving the nervous system
that occurs as a result of experience with an external event or series of events in an
Learning does not include
[December 11, 2012]
- Brief survey of parental care
Taxonomy not very good indicator of parental care. Probably the most simple one is placing eggs
in sheltered nest. Highest could be like honeybees, of provisioning of young with food.
A physical act or threat of action by one
individual that reduces the freedom or genetic
fitness of another. (E.O. Wilson, 1975)
Refers to any activity related to fighting,
whether aggression, conciliation,
Sexual behavior and mating
Why sexual reproduction?
Costs of sexual reproduction:
loss of 50% of genes
energetic cost of producing gametes
time and energy invested in courtship and mating
Benefits of sexual reproduction:
offspring are more varied
Diverse criteria of sociality
adapted from E.O. Wilson, Sociobiology (1975)
number of animals that come together
length of time group remains together
amount of time spend in social behavior
division of labor or ro
Uexk ll - concept of the mwelt
von Frisch (1886(1886-1982)
Early goal of ethology was to demonstrate
that behavior, like anatomical and
Neuroethology: neuroscience of animal
Since the mid-1960s much research, inspired by
the early ethologists, has focused attention on how
the nervous system influences animal behavior.
I.R.M. black box approach
Feature detectors in the nervous sys
Heredity and intelligence: twin studies
Heredity and verbal ability (Plomin)
nine-banded armadillo - monozygous quadruplets !
Genes and behavior
Genes: functional unit of DNA responsible for the synthesis
Four ways evolution has been
used to study behavior
Historical / phylogenetic approach
Involves reconstructing the evolutionary history of the
behavior. Attempts to find behavioral homologies.
Testing adaptive value throug
Learning is a specific modification or change of
behavior involving the nervous system that occurs
as a result of experience with an external event or
series of events in an individuals life.
Learning does not include:
Maturation of ner
Habituation: gradual fading of innate response to a stimulus that proves to be
safe/irrelevant; ex. Learn to not be startled
Aplysia= marine snail
When aimal relaxed= spread out so maximally effective
Will retract gill if touched (because very fragile)
Aggression is not so easy to define
A physical act or threat of action by one individual that reduces the freedom or
genetic fitness of another
Alarm call vs. song
Song can be used to defend territory; aggression
Agnoistic- any activity related to fightin
What qualifies as parental care?
Any effort beyond producing gametes (building nests, caring for young, etc)
Correlated with increased parental care is a reduction in the number of
o r selection: many offspring, little investment
o K selection
To what extent is human intelligence inherited?
- Heredity and intelligence: twin studies
If a trait is entirely based on genes, identical twins will be very similar.
Fraternal twins: share half genes, predicted correla
[October 4, 2012]
- Biological clocks
An internal mechanism in organisms that controls the periodicity of various functions or
For butterflies, it's their descendants that make it to Mexico (cant make it in one life)
Are everywhere! Ubiquitous!
[September 25, 2012]
- Orientation: organism positions itself in the environment on the basis of external cues.
Based on external cues. There are pertinent cues in the world, and now we are looking at
the cues to see how the animals find its way.
[September 20, 2012]
- 5pm Wednesday, review session
- Exam: lecture content, specific pages, plus the Bowler article
- Crickets auditory system
- Toads visual system
There is a retina, the sensitive cells that respond to light energy, and associated with
[September 18, 2012]
- Monomorphic males and females resemble each other
- Dimorphic male and female look different
- Non-monogamous species sexually dimorphic species; male not present for
daughters to imprint on; sons imprint on mother, Monogamous speci
The rise of ethology.
Period from about the turn of the century to early 1960s
He had the insight that diff. species of animals perceive the world very differently
Umwelt (means the world around me). Diff. species will have diff. sen
[September 6, 2012]
Romanes was interested in how animals intelligence evolved
Darwin was pleased, but also noticed the challenge that Romanes was about to face; what
do you use as evidence (there are no previous studies about it)
Romanes went to dog bree
[August 30, 2012]
He might have said, Nothing in biology makes complete sense except in the light of
Change may result in increasing complexity.
Some Major Issues in Evolutionary Biology
Some focuses on origin of species how is it that differen
- 4 ways evolution has been used to study behavior
Testing adaptive value through experimentation (ethologists)
Comparative approach involves looking at a collection of species, and often they share
[October 23, 2012]
- Song development in the white-crowned sparrow (Marler)
That have to learn the species typical song and if they dont, they cant sing normally.
Male does the sing.
Marler got eggs so that he can control for the auditory
[October 18, 2012]
- Left off at observational learning
- Fair test of chimpanzee abilities?
- Conformity to cultural norms of tool use in chimpanzees
de Waal and colleagues wanted to use a complex test, thus devised an apparatus. It
delivers a piece of f