a. Civil servants are accountable to Ministers who are accountable to
Parliament, whose members are accountable to their constituents.
b. The other way to see this is the Government is the ultimate power and
knows best. Government always think that they h
1. Ministers who are over active and create a lot of initiatives puts a lot of strains on
the civil service to implement all of them.
a. Ministers have to be clear on what they want and what their decision is.
b. Ministers who try to pass too much legisla
a. Then below him are the heads of the various ministries and departments
i. Big ministries that manage things. Such as Scottish Office or local
government office that manages relationship between Scottish state
ii. Ministries do service d
i. Cabinet just be smart. Very few businessmen get appointed to
ii. John Major said There were three bastards in his cabinet.
b. Appoint people to non-departmental posts for political reason. Trying to
keep relationships good with party prevent
1. Deputy PM is rarely the second most powerful person in the government (cant
think of any deputy PM who has become PM). Deputy PM is someone who the
a. Thatcher was in-fact a woman. Did not appoint women to cabinet. She
also famously did not
1. How you draw boundaries in the UK can affect who wins. Labour party was able
to win more seats than share of vote and opposite was true of Conservatives.
a. This was in part true because Conservatives voted more. Safe Labour
seats, fewer people voted.
1. Women tend to vote more for Conservative party. Conservatives have often been
better at addressing womens issues. Labour, with trade union ties, looked at
a. Blair got the women vote. Blair got involved with that little war in Iraq
which made hi
a. Cameron lost 2/3 of debates to Clegg. Brown did well compared to
2. Voter disengagement
a. Fewer people are members of political parties.
b. Political attitudes are not as confined to political aprties.
c. 50s had trade unions and business
1. Is the media harlots or watchdogs?
a. Democracy believes media should be watchdogs holding the politicians to
b. More often seen as harlots giving the public what they want
2. Public Service broadcast sometimes does not take on the power
1. The government has a bias against the BBC and Murdochs hate the BBC because
it is a publicly-subsidized competitor. Ah ha
a. BBC was set up to create standards in the 1920s did not want US style
2. Libel is a problem
a. Libel cases a
1. Constitution has question of who is included
2. Constitutions are the rules of the game
a. How different actors relate to each other?
b. Involve the understanding of conventions
3. Monarch is one person who rules. Is more true of Prime Minister and Pre