I. Family Planning
a. Establishing a plausible model of womens agency in reproductive
decision-making is crucial to both public health and medical anthropology
a.i. Womens spirituality is crucial to these decisions often.
b. This paper is based
a. Italian traveler Girolamo Benzoni, in the History of the New World, wrote
that indigenous women in America blackened their faces with makeup,
wore earrings that made their ears hang to their shoulders, and wear nose
a.i. These forms of cosmetics
a. After a voyage to Guinea in 1554, John Lok described Africans as people
of beastly living, locating proof of this in womens behavior.
a.i. Women are held common, no chastity, etc.
b. Traders to the New Worlds were adept at using symbols for primitivism
a. African physically is constructed as something that European corsets
b. Culture and physicality are linked as Robert Burton posits that Africans
have flat noses because their noses knock against mothers backs while
a. Anna Falconbridge, an English 18th c. abolitionist, yearned for cultural
relativism by noting that long breasts in Sierra Leone were considered
b. Edward Long presented slavery as the only method for civilization of
savage Africans in his 17
a. By the 1570s in Western Europe, American was beginning to be
personified by the image of a female nude with feathered headdress.
a.i. A popular example is Jan van der Straets drawing of Vespuccis
discovery of America.
a.ii. In this painting Vespucci vi
a. Even though Arthur Barlowe wrote about the civility of the Natives during
his visit to America at the charge of Sir Walter Ralegh, their simple alien
religion warranted their dispossession of NA even before Raleghs
b. Virginia was named to
a. Some charged Sir Ralegh with never actually sailing to Guiana due to the
lack of evidence/profit of his trip.
a.i. Ralegh followed the footsteps of the Spaniards in his voyage to
b. Dozens of Spaniards had failed to find El Dorado.
a. Ralegh writes about the Amazons of SA who break the gender rules of
Europe by excluding men.
b. Amazons are said to be cruel and brutal.
c. Amazonian culture inverts European norms of political authority, sexual
license, marriage, childrearing, and inh
I. Laboring Woman
a. African women didnt interpret their features as peculiar to their race until
they came into contact with Europeans.
b. For English slaveowners, the notion of perpetual hereditary slavery was
c. Linking blackness with brut
a. Rothman opposes surrogacy as a feminist.
b. She wants to differentiate her opposition to surrogacy from that of those
from religious perspectives.
c. Religious representative oppose surrogacy from a patriarchal point of
I. Women and their Contraception
a. Mens agency was stressed by women in the need to choose fatherhood
and decisions about contraceptive use.
b. Anthropologists have found that public health policies, which focus on
contraceptive use for women, obscure th
I. Ambivalence and Community
a. Public health research has recognized the role of ambivalence in womens
reproductive decisions, which may render simple binary oppositions
between planned and unplanned pregnancies unworkable.
b. Many didnt feel right in su
I. Pregnancy and Intentionality
a. The contingency of wombs upon divine blessing means that reproductive
agency is not entirely in human hands.
b. Blessing in a sense comparable with conceptions of luck or destiny in
womens narratives about reproductive a
a. AMN is reassuringly routinized where it is administered.
b. Rapp has the conviction that health professionals are overstepping their
social limits through AMN.
b.i. They have entered a very complex debate that involves
transnational trade agreem
I. Toward a Technological History of the Present
a. Miscarriage rates following amniocentesis dropped rapidly when AMN
was coupled with ultrasound to prevent injury to the fetus.
b. CVS (chorionic villus sampling) was first tested in 1960 as an alternativ
I. Eugenics and Genetization
a. Francis Galtons idea of eugenics in 1883 was tied to the idea that a
persons internal characteristics could be determined by external variation.
b. Eugenics resulted in attacks on pauperism in England, sterilization
I. Genetic Services and the Law
a. There have been two kind of suits in the area of prenatal genetic testing:
a.i. The wrongful-birth: parents sue their doctors because they didnt
tell them that the fetus would have abnormalities. The standard of
I. Social Movements
a. Two new groups joined the bioethicists in the prenatal testing debate.
a.i. Feminists who were concerned about the medical control over
womens childbirth experience.
a.ii. Disability rights activists concerned with the eugenics invo
a. As is common with the promotional literature for Elizabethan colonizing
ventures, Ralegh envisions exploration abroad as a method for escaping
the financial frustration of English discontents.
a.i. These subjects, rather than their queen, can emulate t