I. Race Riots
a. Race riots occurred in northern cities during the summer of 1964.
a.i. Nonviolence wasnt working in a society that grew angrier each
b. MLK received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964.
b.i. In America young militants were challenging MLKs
I. Civil Rights
a. In the 1950s AAs encountered whites and engaged them for the first time
in a major way on the legitimacy of segregation and discrimination in a
b. The prize was freedom in the AAs fight.
c. Segregation was the contex
I. JFK and Civil Rights
a. In 1960 in New Orleans four black girls went to white schools for the first
a.i. This caused a huge riot.
a.ii. This was 6 years after Brown v. Board of Education.
b. JFKs rhetoric gave hopes to black people that they woul
I. Eisenhower and Civil Rights
a. Some white reverends claimed that segregation was sanctioned in the
b. Many southerners planned to resist the Supreme Courts law for equal
c. The 14th amendment was used as the Supreme Courts basis for s
a. The Freedom riders boarded two buses in DC in 1961 and rode all the way
to New Orleans.
a.i. Black riders sat at the front of the bus and used white facilities.
White riders sat in the back and used black facilities.
a.ii. Outside of A
a. In 1960, four Greensboro NC black college students sat down at a white
lunch counter and refused to leave.
a.i. They were trained in non-violence and refused to fight back as
they were pulled from the counter by a mob.
b. Nashville prom
a. Gov. George Wallace of Alabama was the symbol of southern resistance to
desegregation in 1963.
b. Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth of Birmingham was bombed at his house and
b.i. He was attacked again when he tried to enroll his children in
a. In 1954 the Citizens Council was an anti-integrationist organization in that
South that lobbied for laws and business practices that would maintain
white power in the South.
b. While blacks outnumbered whites in many areas in the South,
I. Selma Riots
a. From all over the country, people came to Selma to march several days
after the police violence the Sunday before outside of Selma.
a.i. 500 clergy came among them.
a.ii. LBJ and a federal court urged MLK to postpone the march, but
I. Rosa Parks
a. In Montgomery in 1955 Rosa Parks refused to obey the bus drivers order
to give up her seat to a white passenger.
b. Parks had worked in the NAACP for over a dozen years.
c. She wasnt the first black person to disobey the segregations laws