I. Transcendental Blackness, Diaspora, and Nation/Transnation
a. Blackness transcends nation-states from Africa to the New World in the
form of African-derived and Afro-Christian religions such as santera in
Cuba, vodou in Haiti, and candombl and umbanda
I. The Positionality of Blackness
a. In 1980 Pierre-Michel Fontaine, a human rights scholar, issued a call for
political-economic and class perspectives on Afro-Latin America.
a.i. This call for the explicit formulation of relationships between
a. Frazier wrote that Brazil has no race problem.
a.i. Brazilian sociologist Gilberto Freyre, a student of Boas at
Columbia, promoted the idea of racial democracy in Brazil, or
the concept that racial prejudice is absent.
a.ii. Anthropologists from the US
a. If Africanisms are found, we ask by what mechanism they are transmitted.
a.i. The idea of Africanisms seems essentialized.
a.ii. African culture in the New World cannot be precisely defined.
b. Dialogism in anthropology has come to signi
I. Geographies of Blackness: Delineating Diaspora
a. Even though Du Bois and Drake operated within a diasporic frame of
reference, their marginalization means that the African diaspora in Latin
American and the Caribbean has been described theoretically a
I. Introduction: The Presence of the Anthropological Past
a. WEB Du Bois, St. Clair Drake, and Zora Neale Hurston wrote the
foundational scholarship on the anthropology of the African diaspora.
a.i. Eliding this research can make European scholars seem cu
I. Effects of various stereotypes
a. Stereotypes often led to denigration.
a.i. Most African cultural practices were cast in a negative light.
b. BAs struggled to learn both the vernaculars of their respective countries
but also the intellectual language
I. Occupational Stereotyping
a. BAs in RE were only found in a small range of skilled occupations while
most were unskilled.
a.i. BAs usually had experience in these artisanal trades back in Africa.
b. Language difficulties and non-literacy, in addition t
I. Physical Stereotypes
a. The practice of circumcision may have classified BAs as other or the
enemy because most Europeans were not circumcised, save the Jews
b. While physical adornments, like scars, markings, and collars, in Africa
a. The original English meaning of the word stereotype was a printing plate
cast from a mold. The figurative use of this is an unduly fixed mental
b. Stereotyping doesnt allow differentiation of individuals within a category.