a. Malcolm X spoke out against black leaders who werent helping the civil
b. By the mid-1960s, the struggle for unity was far from done despite legal
b.i. This was time for anger and fear.
c. Many groups competed for
a. MLK said it was dangerous for there to be a large segment of society with
no stake in that society.
a.i. These people would try to destroy their society.
b. MLK moved his campaign to Chicago.
b.i. Many blacks saw Mayor Richard Daley as
a. The Freedom Movement was changing course by 1967.
a.i. Black people called for power in order to control their lives.
b. 15 million AAs lived in cities, but no cities had ever had a black mayor.
b.i. In Cleveland there was a campaign to
a. MLK: We spend approx. $322,000 on each enemy killed in Vietnam while
we spend approx. $60 on each poor person in the US on the war on
a.i. Vietnam undermined the war on poverty domestically.
a.ii. MLK emphasized the need for jo
a. Many AAs had to downplay their black heritage in order to assimilate for
a.i. In the 1960s, the idea that black was beautiful emerged and
countered assimilationist subjectivity.
a.ii. The civil rights movement had strength
a. Bobby Seale, chairman and founder of the Black Panthers, said that MLK
exhausted the means of nonviolence.
a.i. He followed Malcolm Xs advice to use any means possible to
b. The Black Panthers were described as a shock
a. A decade after Brown V. Board of Education the civil rights struggle had
b. By the 1960s, parents and teachers questioned the quality of education in
predominately black schools.
b.i. Parents claimed that this negatively aff
a. While blacks had been the minority in Boston, the civil rights fight was
different in Atlanta where blacks had recently formed the majority.
b. Maynard Jackson, the first black mayor of a large southern city, was
elected in 1973.
b.i. This c
a. In the spring of 1980, the city of Miami was flooded with Cubans and
Haitians with the hope of the American dream.
b. Most of Miamis blacks have lived in northern Downtown Miami in a
neighborhood called Overtown.
c. Segregation affected nightl
a. When Reagan was elected, he cut $100 billion in welfare programs.
a.i. A coalition in Chicago protested this legislation.
a.ii. The mayor of Chicago stopped L-trains from stopping in black
b. Jane Byrne became mayor of Chicago