I. Names and Signification
a. Taking away the name and religion of a forced immigrant is a process that
steals ones identity and depersonalizes them.
a.i. This places slaves in permanent marginalization.
b. Muslim slaves reject the social order of whites
I. Mahommah Gardo Baquaqua and Mohammed Ali Ben Said: African Muslim
Slaves and World Travelers
a. Baquaqua and Ali Ben Said came to America as free men during the
antebellum period after being slaves on multiple continents.
b. They told their stories to
I. Lamine Kaba: Scholar and Signifier
a. Lamine said, There are good men in America, but all are very ignorant of
b. He formulated and executed a plan in which he proclaimed a sudden
conversion to Christianity and promised to spread the word of Ch
I. Bilali and Salih Bilali: Muslims of the Georgia Sea Islands
a. These are two of at least two black Muslims who practiced their religion
in Sapelo and St. Simons Islands during the antebellum period.
b. Bilali was a Muslim slave on a plantation in Sapel
I. Prince in a Strange Land
a. Abd al-Rahman Ibrahima was captured at the age of 25 and later sold to
Thomas Foster and was liberated in 1828.
b. His white captors called this West African Muslim prince a Moor.
c. His story shows how some African Muslim s
I. Job Ben Solomon: No Common Slave
a. C. 1700-1773. His name is an anglicization of his original name.
b. He came from a prominent family of Muslim religious in Senegal.
c. He had studied the Quran and Arabic with a young prince.
d. His peoples enemies,
I. Black Islam and Modernity
a. In 1591 Songhay fell when Morocco invaded.
a.i. This signaled the end of mighty economic and political power of
empires that had sustained West African Islam.
a.ii. This also signaled the decline of the great West African c
I. West African Muslim Empires
a. Mansa Musa ruled Mali from 1307 till 1332; his riches attracted North
African and Middle Eastern Muslims.
b. Musa became the Sultan of a kingdom that he converted to Islam.
c. Musa was the descendent of Sundiata (c. 1230-
I. Islam in the West African World
a. Sudan of antiquity stretched across the entire continent.
b. Arab and Berber Muslims from Egypt and North Africa made contact with
this area in the 8th century through trade across the Sahara.
c. As Islam began to tak
a. Estevan was the first identifiable Muslim in North America. He was a
black Moroccan guide and interpreter who came to Florida from Spain in
1527 with the Panfilo de Narvaez expedition.
b. He explored the American southwest with Spaniards com