3 Constitution positions for Congress:
1. Presiding Offiser of the Senate = Vice President
2. President Pro Tempore- Longest serving member of the majority party
3. Speaker of the House (the constitution states that "the house shall
a. Descriptive theory: view that legislation body should reflect the makeup of
the political body. Cross-section of political community.
i. Articulated by John Adams
ii. Theory based on similar demographic people would have similar
1. A faction is a group of citizens, either a minority or majority, that is motivated by
a common passion or interest and are pursuing a goal that denies other citizens
rights or is adverse to the whole
a. Madison says you can either remove the cause or c
1. Cant lose a seat that is not up for reelection
2. The House had one problem that was solved by amendment, but House has had
many more problems. Much more complicated procedures. Problems are
apportionment and Districting
a. Apportionment: How members a
1. A delegate is a representative who is supposed to vote in line with constituency,
but Trustee is elected and is supposed to make own informed decisions. Trustee
view has the job of representative involves deliberating on issues, but delegate
1. Incumbents tend to focus more on experience record. Challengers/open-seat
candidates tend to focus more on the issues
a. Challengers tend to spend more money on negative ads
2. To raise the millions needed, need to raise in small contributions from a l
1. A few candidates are recruited by the national party, but mostly the process is self
a. You decide to run
b. You develop party organization
c. You finance your campaign
d. To run in an election, essentially have to take a year away from work
1. Analysis of Bushs reading on 2010 election
a. What happened in 2010?
b. Why did it happen?
c. What is going to happen?
2. What happened?
a. 63 seats are gained by Republicans in House and 6 in the Senate
b. Consistent with pattern of losing seats for P
1. Incumbent part of the job of representative: meeting with individuals, dealing
with complains are also part of reelection campaign.
a. Their allowances including large staff, travel expenses, free mail, and
offices at home in congressional district
i. Hiring is done by both Chair and ranking minority member
ii. Ways and Means every member got a staffer just to work on issues
for Ways and Means
iii. Point of committee staff is to responsible to the committee
b. Research and Support Staff