The sexual division of labor
A new pattern of "separate spheres" emerged.
The man emerged as the family's primary
wage earner, while the woman found only
limited job opportunities.
Married women were much less likely to work
outside the house after the fi
o The new factory workers
Many observers claimed that the Industrial
Revolution brought misery to the workers.
The romantic poets Blake and Wordsworth
protested the life of the workers and the
pollution of the land and water.
The Luddites smashed the new
The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain - GB was the pioneer in
A colonial empire, the expanding Atlantic trade, and a strong
and tariff free home market created new demands for English
Available capital, stable go
The birth of Marxian socialism
The Communist Manifesto (1848), by Marx and
Engels, is the key work of socialism.
Marx saw all of previous history in terms of an
economic class struggle.
The industrial society was characterized,
according to Marx, by the e
The coming of the railroads
Stephenson's steampowered Rocket was Europe's
first locomotive-running on the Liverpool and
Manchester Railway, the first important railroad
The railroad boom (1830-1850) meant lower
transportation costs, larger markets
o Metternich and conservatism
Metternich represented the view that the best state
blended monarchy, bureaucracy, and aristocracy.
He hated liberalism, which he claimed stirred up the
lower classes and caused war and bloodshed.
Liberalism also stirred up n
The peace settlement
o By 1814, the conservative monarchs had defeated French
armies and checked the spread of the French
Revolution-but many questions remained unanswered.
o The European balance of power
The victors (mainly the alliance of Russia, Austri
o Agents of industrialization in continental Europe
Cockerill, in Belgium, was one of many Englishmen
who brought British industrial secrets to other parts
In Germany, Harkort's failed attempt to industrialize
Germany illustrates the difficulty
"Nations" are recent creations-the product of
a new nationalist ideology centering on
ceremonies and parades and other traditions.
A common belief in "the people" linked
nationalism with democracy, liberalism, and
Nationalists believed tha
The change in the Corn Laws led to protests
by urban laborers, supported by radical
Parliament responded by passing the Six Acts
(1819), which eliminated all mass meetings.
The growth of the middle class and its desire for
reform led to th